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Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

Light Attack Multirole Carrierborne Fighter Aircraft


The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk naval jet fighter saw decades of service worldwide with nearly 3,000 aircraft produced.

Detailing the development and operational history of the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk Light Attack Multirole Carrierborne Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/30/2019. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
The A-4 Skyhawk (nicknamed "Heinemann's Hot Rod" and the "Scooter") came about as a private venture when the Douglas corporation was seeking to replace the aging AD Skyraider (A-1 Skyraider) piston-engine aircraft. The successor to the A-1 was originally another piston-engine alternative known by the designation as the A-2D Skyshark, but powerplant issues shelved the project altogether. During this time, the A-4 Skyhawk was already in development as a small, lightweight jet-powered attack aircraft to which the US Navy took a fair amount of interest in.

Ed Heinemann was the chief designer of the A-4 Skyhawk while working at Douglas, which led to the development of nine Skyhawk prototypes designated as the XA4D-1 - the first of which flew on September in 1956. From there, the Pratt & Whitney J65-powered craft would go into full operational production as the A-4A Skyhawk.

The Pratt & Whitney powerplant was a British-designed and licensed Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire turbojet. The system was capable of producing over 8,000lbs or standard thrust (no afterburner was integrated to the engine) and the base powerplant could be found on the initial three A-4's - the A, B and C models.

The A-4E Skyhawk model stood as a vast improvement over previous models and served the US Navy featuring an overall heavier airframe but a Pratt & Whitney J52 powerplant. A successive model for the US Navy, the A-4F, proved to be the last model and featured further improvements on the A-4E, most notably the avionics-housing "hump" visible in the image above just behind the cockpit and running along the dorsal spine of the fuselage.

The United States Marine Corps took orders for the "Ultimate Skyhawk" in the A-4M Skyhawk II. This model featured an all-new enlarged canopy for improved pilot visibility. It also featured an increased MTOW capacity (nearly double of what the base A-4 could do) allowing for an additional array of weaponry to be fitted. The A-4M model was fitted with an even more powerful J52-P-408 powerplant that increase range and overall speed.

Export figures were decent, with Argentina becoming the initial customer. Others would soon follow including Israel, Malaysia, Kuwait, Brazil and Singapore. In the end, the A-4 Skyhawk proved its worth with decades of faithful service to the United States with the Navy and the Marine Corps both putting the aircraft through a rigorous pacing. The single powerplant was more than suitable for the role that the A-4 was designed to fulfill and the diminutive size when compared to other carrier aircraft was a good fit for carrier storage.


YEAR: 1956
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): McDonnell Douglas - USA
LENGTH: 40.26 ft (12.27 m)
WIDTH: 27.49 ft (8.38 m)
HEIGHT: 14.99 ft (4.57 m)
EMPTY WEIGHT: 10,465 lb (4,747 kg)
MTOW: 24,504 lb (11,115 kg)
POWER: 1 x Pratt & Whitney J52-P-408 non-afterburning turbojet developing 11,200 lb of thrust.
SPEED: 645 mph (1,038 kph; 560 kts)
CEILING: 38,698 feet (11,795 m; 7.33 miles)
RANGE: 2,001 miles (3,220 km; 1,739 nm)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 10,300 ft/min (3,139 m/min)
OPERATORS: Argentina; Australia; Brazil; Indonesia; Israel; Malaysia; New Zealand; Singapore; United States

2 x 20mm Colt Mk 12 automatic internal cannons in wing roots (one gun per root).

Mission-specific weapons included any of the following:

AIM-9 "Sidewinder" short-range air-to-air missiles.
AGM-12 "Bullpup" air-to-surface missiles.
AGM-65 "Maverick" air-to-surface missiles.
AGM-45 "Shrike" anti-radiation missiles.
AGM-62 "Walleye" glide drop bombs.
LAU-10 rocket pods.
B43, B57 and B61 nuclear bombs.
Rockeye Mk 7 (cluster), Rockeye II Mark 20 (cluster) and Mark 80 conventional drop bombs.
3 x 370 Gallon jettisonable fuel tanks.

Maximum ordnance loads of up to 9,155lb (4,155 kg) across five external hardpoints (1 x Fuselage centerline; 4 x Underwing); Three internal positions plumbed for fuel stores.
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an air-to-air missile weapon
Graphical image of a short-range air-to-air missile
Graphical image of an aircraft air-to-surface missile
Graphical image of an aircraft anti-radar/anti-radiation missile
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Graphical image of an air launched nuclear weapon
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Graphical image of an aircraft external fuel tank
Variants / Models

• XA4D-1 - Prototype Designation of which nine produced.
• A4D-1 - Initial Production Models pre-1962 reorganization.
• A-4A - Initial production model post-1962 designation; 166 examples completed.
• A-4B - Reinforced airframe; air-to-air capability added; improved avionics; AGM-12 Bullpup missile support; 542 examples completed.
• A-4C - Adverse weather variant with AN/APG-53A radar; powered by Wright J65-W-20 engine of 8,200lb thrust; 638 examples produced.
• A-4E - Refined variant; heavier airframe; powered by Pratt & Whitney J52 engine.
• A-4F - Final USN variant with fuselage "hump" housing additional avionics equipment.
• A-4M "Skyhawk II" - USMC variant with enlarged canopy for increased visibility; increased MTOW; more powerful J52-P-408 engine.
• TA-4F - Two-seat USN trainer Variant
• A-4P - Argentine Air Force export model
• A-4Q - Argentine Air Force export model
• A-4AR "Fightinghawks" - Argentine Air Force export model based on A-4M; updated avionics, HUD system and ARG-1 radar system.
• A-4H - Israeli export model based on A-4E variant.
• A-4N - Israeli export model based on A-4M variant.
• A-4S - Singapore export model
• A-4K - New Zealand export model with upgraded HUD, avionics, twin-CRT displays and HOTAS.
• T/A-4KU - Kuwaiti export model (resold to Brazil).

Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 750mph
Lo: 375mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (645mph).

Graph average of 562.5 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II (Super Skyhawk)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (2,960)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

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