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Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

Light Attack Multirole Carrier-Borne Fighter Aircraft

Douglas A-4 Skyhawk

Light Attack Multirole Carrier-Borne Fighter Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



The Douglas A-4 Skyhawk naval jet fighter saw decades of service worldwide with nearly 3,000 aircraft produced.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: United States
YEAR: 1956
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): McDonnell Douglas - USA
PRODUCTION: 2,960
OPERATORS: Argentina; Australia; Brazil; Indonesia; Israel; Malaysia; New Zealand; Singapore; United States (retired)
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 40.26 feet (12.27 meters)
WIDTH: 27.49 feet (8.38 meters)
HEIGHT: 14.99 feet (4.57 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 10,465 pounds (4,747 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 24,504 pounds (11,115 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Pratt & Whitney J52-P-408 non-afterburning turbojet developing 11,200 lb of thrust (standard).
SPEED (MAX): 645 miles-per-hour (1038 kilometers-per-hour; 560 knots)
RANGE: 2,001 miles (3,220 kilometers; 1,739 nautical miles)
CEILING: 38,698 feet (11,795 meters; 7.33 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 10,300 feet-per-minute (3,139 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



STANDARD, FIXED:
2 x 20mm internal cannons in wing roots.

OPTIONAL:
Mission-specific weapons included any of the following:

AIM-9 Sidewinder short-range air-to-air missiles
AGM-12 Bullpup air-to-surface missiles
AGM-65 Maverick air-to-surface missiles
AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missiles
AGM-62 Walleye glide bombs
LAU-10 rocket pods
B43, B57 and B61 nuclear bombs
Rockeye Mk 7 (cluster), Rockeye II Mark 20 (cluster) and Mark 80 drop bombs.
3 x 370 gallon jettisonable fuel tanks.

Maximum ordnance loads of up to 9,155lb (4,155 kg) across five external hardpoints.
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• XA4D-1 - Prototype Designation of which nine produced.
• A4D-1 - Initial Production Models pre-1962 reorganization.
• A-4A - Initial production model post-1962 designation; 166 examples completed.
• A-4B - Reinforced airframe; air-to-air capability added; improved avionics; AGM-12 Bullpup missile support; 542 examples completed.
• A-4C - Adverse weather variant with AN/APG-53A radar; powered by Wright J65-W-20 engine of 8,200lb thrust; 638 examples produced.
• A-4E - Refined variant; heavier airframe; powered by Pratt & Whitney J52 engine.
• A-4F - Final USN variant with fuselage "hump" housing additional avionics equipment.
• A-4M "Skyhawk II" - USMC variant with enlarged canopy for increased visibility; increased MTOW; more powerful J52-P-408 engine.
• TA-4F - Two-seat USN trainer Variant
• A-4P - Argentine Air Force export model
• A-4Q - Argentine Air Force export model
• A-4AR "Fightinghawks" - Argentine Air Force export model based on A-4M; updated avionics, HUD system and ARG-1 radar system.
• A-4H - Israeli export model based on A-4E variant.
• A-4N - Israeli export model based on A-4M variant.
• A-4S - Singapore export model
• A-4K - New Zealand export model with upgraded HUD, avionics, twin-CRT displays and HOTAS.
• T/A-4KU - Kuwaiti export model (resold to Brazil).


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk Light Attack Multirole Carrier-Borne Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/4/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The A-4 Skyhawk (nicknamed "Heinemann's Hot Rod" and the "Scooter") came about as a private venture when the Douglas corporation was seeking to replace the aging AD Skyraider (A-1 Skyraider) piston-engine aircraft. The successor to the A-1 was originally another piston-engine alternative known by the designation as the A-2D Skyshark, but powerplant issues shelved the project altogether. During this time, the A-4 Skyhawk was already in development as a small, lightweight jet-powered attack aircraft to which the US Navy took a fair amount of interest in.

Ed Heinemann was the chief designer of the A-4 Skyhawk while working at Douglas, which led to the development of nine Skyhawk prototypes designated as the XA4D-1 - the first of which flew on September in 1956. From there, the Pratt & Whitney J65-powered craft would go into full operational production as the A-4A Skyhawk.

The Pratt & Whitney powerplant was a British-designed and licensed Armstrong Siddeley Sapphire turbojet. The system was capable of producing over 8,000lbs or standard thrust (no afterburner was integrated to the engine) and the base powerplant could be found on the initial three A-4's - the A, B and C models.

The A-4E Skyhawk model stood as a vast improvement over previous models and served the US Navy featuring an overall heavier airframe but a Pratt & Whitney J52 powerplant. A successive model for the US Navy, the A-4F, proved to be the last model and featured further improvements on the A-4E, most notably the avionics-housing "hump" visible in the image above just behind the cockpit and running along the dorsal spine of the fuselage.

The United States Marine Corps took orders for the "Ultimate Skyhawk" in the A-4M Skyhawk II. This model featured an all-new enlarged canopy for improved pilot visibility. It also featured an increased MTOW capacity (nearly double of what the base A-4 could do) allowing for an additional array of weaponry to be fitted. The A-4M model was fitted with an even more powerful J52-P-408 powerplant that increase range and overall speed.

Export figures were decent, with Argentina becoming the initial customer. Others would soon follow including Israel, Malaysia, Kuwait, Brazil and Singapore. In the end, the A-4 Skyhawk proved its worth with decades of faithful service to the United States with the Navy and the Marine Corps both putting the aircraft through a rigorous pacing. The single powerplant was more than suitable for the role that the A-4 was designed to fulfill and the diminutive size when compared to other carrier aircraft was a good fit for carrier storage.




MEDIA









Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 750mph
Lo: 375mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (645mph).

    Graph average of 562.5 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Douglas A-4M Skyhawk II (Super Skyhawk)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
2960
2960

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


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Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue