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Martin XB-16 (Model 145)

United States (1935)
National Flag Graphic
Origin: United States
Year: 1935
Type: Long-Range, High-Altitude Heavy Bomber Prototype
Manufacturer(s): Glen L. Martin Company - USA
Production: 0


No prototypes of the proposed multi-engined Martin XB-16 were ever completed - the design failing to impress USAAC authorities.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Martin XB-16 (Model 145) Long-Range, High-Altitude Heavy Bomber Prototype.  Entry last updated on 5/2/2016. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The 1930s saw considerable technological growth concerning military aircraft. Losing inventory space were the classic "fabric-over-wood" biplanes debuted during, and after, World War 1 (1914-1918) with these being actively succeeded by more metal-skinned types relying on stronger metal under-structures. While biplanes still existed in various frontline fighting forms, the monoplane was picking up steam as the aircraft-wing-design-of-choice from newer entries.

In 1933, U.S. military personnel at Wright Field undertook work to flesh out a new all- modern bomber - one that could carry a war load of at least 2,500 lb out to distances of 5,000 miles while maintaining a speed of 200 miles per hour. The United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) developed "Project-A" around these specifications and this was presented in 1934 to large-aircraft makers Boeing and Martin. The intent was to develop an bombing platform capable of reaching (and subsequently protecting) American interests in far-off places like Alaska, Hawaii, and Panama.

The Glen L. Martin Company was founded in 1912 and contributed to the American aircraft effort of World War 1 - its biggest success being the MB-1 biplane bomber of 1918. From there came the MB-2 of the 1920s and culminated with the B-10 of 1932. The B-10s entry was of particular note as it marked the first mass-produced bomber that could outrun "pursuit" fighters of the period. Nearly 350 of this Martin product were produced.

Martin's submission to the project was known internally as "Model 145". To contend with the requested range and performance, a four-engined layout was selected - power stemming from 4 x Allison V-1710 liquid-cooled inline piston engines of 1,000 horsepower each. This proved something of a departure for the USAAC as its contemporary stock of large aircraft relied heavily on trusty air-cooled radial piston engines. Liquid-cooled inline engines aided high-altitude performance and could be fitted within more streamlined nacelles, therefore inherently improving aerodynamic efficiency. The trade off in selecting an inline engine, however, was in the increased vulnerability to enemy fire due to the internally fragile nature of such an engine.
For the USAAC program, the Model 145 was designated the "XB-16" and a prototype was commissioned (Boeing's entry became the "XB-15" and is detailed elsewhere on this site). A twin-boom form was achieved in which the crew sections, bomb load, and other primary mission components were held in a centralized nacelle. The wide-spanning wing elements (showcasing a combined 140 foot span) were affixed to this structure and high-mounted. Each wing was to hold a pair of engine nacelles that were well-contoured into the general shape of the wing elements themselves. The cockpit was stepped (the pilot's overlooking the aircraft's nose section) and window panes accompanied the bombardier's position at the nose. The tail booms emanated from the wing trailing edges and were capped at their absolute ends by vertical tail fins. The booms were joined to one another by a shared horizontal plane that also protruded from the vertical fin sides outboard. A tricycle undercarriage (wholly retractable) was envisioned for the final design and the standard operating crew would number ten.

Initially, the XB-16 design was roughly equivalent in dimension to the Boeing submission but it was decided by Martin to increase its bomber's size to meet the intended bomb load and range requirements (an increase to internal space allowed for greater fuel loads to be carried and lifting and strength properties could be spread out over the larger aircraft as a result. The wing span now measured 173 feet - even greater than the World War 2-era Boeing B-29 "Superfortress" still to come - and these changes called for a new company model designator to be used, the "Model 145B".

The larger aircraft required more power so an additional pair of engines was added. As the original set faced forward at each wing leading edge, the two additional engines were positioned to face aft at each wing trailing edge. In all each wing would hold three engines apiece with the new engine installs added directly behind the existing outboard fits.

In the end, it was decided by USAAC authorities that the Martin bomber could not meet the intended requirements, particularly in the field of speed. It was estimated that the XB-16 was to have a maximum speed of 237 miles per hour, reach out to 5,000 miles (3,200 mile mission range), and reach an altitude of 22,500 feet. Its rated bomb load was 12,180lb of internally-held drop ordnance. As such, the XB-16 was cancelled before any tangible work on a prototype was ever completed.

Boeing's XB-15 held greater promise and a single, flyable prototype was completed which evolved to become the developmental "Y1B-20". Boeings large bomber work eventually produced two classics of the period - the B-17 "Flying Fortress" and the aforementioned B-29 - both proving their mettle over Europe and the Pacific theaters during World War 2.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 300mph
Lo: 150mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (236mph).

    Graph average of 225 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Martin XB-16 (Model 145)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
0
0


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
  Compare this entry against other aircraft using our Comparison Tool  
Global Operators:
United States (cancelled)
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Martin XB-16 (Model 145) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
10


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
114.83 ft


Meters
35 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
141.08 ft


Meters
43 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
18.04 ft


Meters
5.5 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
31,967 lb


Kilograms
14,500 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
104,940 lb


Kilograms
47,600 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
Model 145A: 4 x Allison V-1710-3 V12 liquid-cooled inline piston engines developing 1,000 horsepower each.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
236 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
380 kph


Knots
205 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
5,002 mi


Kilometers
8,050 km


Nautical Miles
4,347 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
22,507 ft


Meters
6,860 m


Miles
4.26 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
740 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
226 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Armament - Hardpoints (0):

PROPOSED:
An internal bomb load of up to 12,180 lb (conventional drop ordnance).
Variants: Series Model Variants
• XB-16 - Base Prototype Designation; none completed.
• Model 145 / Model 145A - Original design with 140-foot wingspan and four-engine configuration.
• Model 145B - Revised product with 173-foot wingspan and six-engine configuration.