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Bell XP-59 (Model 20)

United States (1943)

Detailing the development and operational history of the Bell XP-59 (Model 20) Twin-Boom Fighter Proposal.

 Entry last updated on 12/21/2016; Authored by Staff Writer; Content ©

  Bell XP-59 (Model 20)  
Picture of Bell XP-59 (Model 20) Twin-Boom Fighter Proposal

The Bell XP-52 evolved to become the larger XP-59 fighter form - but both were dropped from contention and the XP-59 designation reused for the jet-powered Bell P-59 Airacomet.

Bell provided its XP-52 design as a contender for a new United States Army Air Corps (USAAC) fighter requirement emerging in the late-1930s. Bell was already gaining notoriety in aviation circles for their rather forward-thinking designs such as the YFM-1 "Airacuda" bomber destroyer and the P-39 "Airacobra". The Airacuda of 1940 was a highly ambitious attack platform intended to tackle enemy bombers head-on but only thirteen were eventually built, the line dropped as soon as 1942. The P-39, on other hand, managed a more successful existence during World War 2 (1939-1945) as over 9,500 were produced and it primarily found success with the Soviets via Lend-Lease.

With that in mind, the XP-52 was another in the company's long line of unique wartime submissions. It utilized a twin-boom configuration not unlike the Lockheed P-38 "Lightning" heavy fighter and similarly sat its pilot in a centralized fuselage nacelle. The engine was placed at the rear of this nacelle to drive a pair of propeller units in contra-rotating fashion by way of "pusher" configuration. The engine would be aspirated through an intake at the nose. The wing mainplanes, swept slightly aft, were positioned at the rear of the fuselage nacelle and from their trailing edges originated the tail booms - each capped by a vertical fin and joined by a shared horizontal plane. As with other Bell aircraft products, a tricycle undercarriage would be featured in the design.

Power was to come from a Continental XIV-1430-3 V-12 inverted liquid-cooled piston engine. The same engine was selected for the experimental Curtiss XP-55, Lockheed XP-49, and McDonnell XP-67 prototypes (all detailed elsewhere on this site) but ultimately ran into issues by performing beyond expectations. Little more than twenty-three were produced.

The XP-52 never materialized beyond some preliminary work and was officially cancelled on November 25th, 1941 (America would enter World War 2 just one month later). Instead, it was decided to pursue an enlarged version of the same aircraft as the "XP-59" so the twin-boom configuration with pusher-propeller setup would be carried over. Power would come from a Pratt & Whitney R-2800-23 engine outputting 2,000 horsepower.

In the end, even this Bell product did not progress beyond preliminary work (a wind tunnel model was completed providing the general shape of the aircraft). Attention was now being paid to a jet-powered fighter that Bell was selected to design and build. General Electric was charged with manufacturing a local copy of the British Whittle turbojet for the new design intended to serve the now-United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). The aircraft received the same designation of "XP-59" (effectively cancelling the original XP-59 Bell initiative) and became the P-59 "Airacomet" in service - America's first jet-powered fighter.

Performance figures on this page are estimates on the part of the author based on similar designs of the period.
Any available statistics for the Bell XP-59 (Model 20) Twin-Boom Fighter Proposal are showcased in the areas immediately below. Categories include basic specifications covering country-of-origin, operational status, manufacture(s) and total quantitative production. Other qualities showcased are related to structural values (namely dimensions), installed power and standard day performance figures, installed or proposed armament and mission equipment (if any), global users (from A-to-Z) and series model variants (if any).
Bell XP-59 Specifications
National Flag Graphic
United States
Year: 1943
Type: Twin-Boom Fighter Proposal
Manufacturer(s): Bell Aircraft Corporation - USA
Production: 0
Supported Mission Types
Ground Attack
Close-Air Support
Airborne Early Warning
Electronic Warfare
Aerial Tanker
Passenger Industry
VIP Travel
Business Travel
Special Forces
Crew: 1
Length: 34.12 ft (10.4 m)
Width: 37.73 ft (11.50 m)
Height: 12.47 ft (3.80 m)
Empty Weight: 7,055 lb (3,200 kg)
MTOW: 9,700 lb (4,400 kg)

Installed Power
XP-52: 1 x Continental XIV-1430-3 V-12 liquid-cooled piston engine developing 1,275 horsepower and driving a pair of propeller blades arranged in a "puller" configuration through a contra-rotating fashion.

Standard Day Performance
Maximum Speed: 388 mph (625 kph; 337 kts)
Maximum Range: 435 mi (700 km; 378 nm)
Service Ceiling: 26,247 ft (8,000 m; 4.97 mi)
Rate-of-Climb: 2,500 ft/min (762 m/min)

1 x 37mm M4 cannon with 2 x 0.50 caliber heavy machine guns in nose.
2 x 0.50 caliber heavy machine guns in wings (one to a wing).

Operators List
United States (cancelled)

Series Model Variants
• XP-52 - Initial prototype designation
• XP-59 - Revised, dimensionally larger form based on the XP-52 design.
• P-59 - Assumed USAAC in-service designation

Supported Weapon Systems
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft heavy machine gun
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon