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Bell UH-1B/C Huey Cobra / Frog

United States (1962)
Picture of Bell UH-1B/C Huey Cobra / Frog Gunship Helicopter
Picture of Bell UH-1B/C Huey Cobra / Frog Gunship Helicopter

The Bell UH-1 as a helicopter gunship excelled in its given over-battlefield role when pressed into service over Vietnam.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Bell UH-1B/C Huey Cobra / Frog Gunship Helicopter.  Entry last updated on 5/14/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

One of the symbols of the American involvement in the Vietnam War (1955-1975) became the ubiquitous Bell UH-1 "Huey" transport helicopter. It was excelled in the "air cavalry" role and was also pressed in to troop ferrying into and out of contested zones while also providing critical to MEDEVAC operations. Another one of the system's primary roles became that of helicopter "gunship" as the base design was modified through an array of weapons to serve alongside transport versions and provide covering fire. In this arrangement, the transports could operate with Close Air Support (CAS) immediately on hand over areas where loitering by fixed-wing aircraft proved unrealistic.

Various platforms were modified and tested by the U.S. Army during the course of the war as dedicated gunships and this included the large tandem-rotor, medium-lift Boeing CH-47 "Chinook" transport as well as the smaller Sikorsky H-34 series. Transitions generally revolved around outfitting the existing airframes with wing stubs for rocket pods/tubes and gun pods while machine guns were added at door and window stations when possible. Grenade launchers and autocannons, these fitted to turrets, and even missiles rounded out some of the weaponry tested on these vehicles. These gunships were, by and large, only interim measures until more dedicated attack platforms like the Bell AH-1 "Cobra" line came into being.

The UH-1B became the first helicopter gunship to see operational service in number anywhere in the world. All-gun models were designated "Cobras" (or "Guns") while rocket-carrying forms were known as "Frogs" and "Hogs". The use of the name "Cobra" in this instance was also the first of its kind in U.S. Army helicopter service prior to the arrival of the Bell AH-1 series mentioned prior. Eventually versions emerged that carried both guns and rocket pods. Dedicated troop transports were known simply as "Slicks" and lacked wing stubs/rocket pods but could carry side door gunners for local area suppression of enemy elements.

Cobras and Frogs/Hogs were powered by a Lycoming T53-L-11 turboshaft engine developing 1,100 horsepower while driving the two-bladed main rotor and two-bladed tail rotor. The aircraft could expect to make speeds nearing 95 miles per hour which made them fast platforms quick to respond to changing situations and also keep up with the troop transports. Both UH-1B and UH-1C Huey production models were used in the gunship role during the war.
The UH-1 gunship was a true weapons platform and showcased the versatility of the design as a whole. The most potent of these ("Cobra" form) carried wing stubs that mounted a quad 0.30 caliber machine gun array (two guns stacked at each end point) and a single pylon for a seven- or nineteen-shot 2.75" rocket pod for a total of fourteen rockets. Alternatively miniguns could take the place of the quad 0.40 caliber machine gun arrangement (as could a cannon pod as in the "XM-31" 20mm system) and various rocket launchers were fitted over or under the wing stubs (the former as in the "XM-6 Quad Mount" system). At the nose was a powered turret fitting a 40mm M-5 automatic grenade launcher fed by a 107 round stock of projectiles. Beyond these fixed implements were M60 General Purpose Machine Guns (GPMGs) carried at each side door (or M134 trainable miniguns)), trainable and operated by dedicated gunners. A typical crew, therefore, numbered four personnel to man the various onboard systems and weapons. Night operations could be aided by trainable searchlights at the side doors as well and required additional crew to function (sighting devices were also part of this configuration).

UH-1 gunships excelled in their given role for the firepower they carried into battle was a much-needed quality of Army doctrine of the period. Helicopters had access to areas well-beyond front lines and this meant that they were usually operating in zones while taking fire. As such, the importance of suppression was highly valued by warplanners and infantry alike. The role of Huey gunships was also expanded as they formed one-half of "hunter-killer" teams when paired with lighter helicopter platforms such as Hughes OH-6 and Bell OH-58 helicopters. Alternatively, the light helicopters could be switched our for a fixed-wing attacker like the Douglas A-1 "Skyraider" which could fly low and slow enough to be effective alongside the UH-1 gunships. These observation helicopters could locate and assess enemy positions and work in tandem with the awaiting gunship who then brought its lethal payload to bear on a designated area.

Due to their excellent combat record, UH-1 gunships had a direct influence on the expediency of getting the Bell AH-1 Cobra into the skies over Vietnam. The AH-1 eventually took over direct-attack duties from the Huey gunship types during the late 1960s and, while proving effective in their own right, AH-1 helicopters lacked an inherent troop-ferrying capability which limited them tactically -particularly where MEDEVAC and troop extractions were critical to a platoon's success or failure. The Soviets learned this and added a troop cabin to their equally-excellent Mil Mi-24 "Hind" line, effectively making them armored and heavily armed "gun buses".




General Assessment (BETA)
Firepower  
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Performance  
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Survivability  
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Versatility  
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Impact  
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Rating: 56 (of 100)
The rating is an internal assessment derived from forty factors pertaining to this entry.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 100mph
Lo: 50mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (95mph).

    Graph average of 75 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Bell UH-1B's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
1000
1000


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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National Flag Graphic
Origin: United States
Year: 1962
Type: Gunship Helicopter
Manufacturer(s): Bell Helicopter - USA
Production: 1,000
Status: Retired, Out-of-Service
Global Operators:
United States
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Bell UH-1B model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
4


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
57.41 ft


Meters
17.5 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
47.57 ft


Meters
14.5 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
14.76 ft


Meters
4.5 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
5,181 lb


Kilograms
2,350 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
8,818 lb


Kilograms
4,000 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Lycoming T53-L-11 turboshaft engine developing 1,100 horsepower while driving two-bladed main rotor and two-bladed tail rotor.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
95 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
153 kph


Knots
83 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
311 mi


Kilometers
500 km


Nautical Miles
270 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
18,045 ft


Meters
5,500 m


Miles
3.42 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
1,600 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
488 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft Gatling-style rotating gun
Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Armament - Hardpoints (2):

Variable:
4 x 0.30 caliber machine guns on wing stubs (two per wing) OR 2 x Miniguns (one per wing).
2 x 2.75" seven-shot rocket pods (or tube arrangement) on wing stubs (one per wing) OR 2 x 24-shot tube "box" kits OR similar arrangement.
1 x 40mm M-5 automatic grenade launcher turret in chin position.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• UH-1 "Cobra / Gun" - All-gun variant
• UH-1 "Frog / Hog" - All-rocket variant
• UH-1 "Slick" - Troop transport sans wing stubs / wing armament though usually outfitted with door-mounted machine guns for local suppression.