Military Factory logo
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of navy warships
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting

HAL Ajeet (Invincible)

Lightweight Interceptor / Ground Attack / Advanced Trainer Aircraft

HAL Ajeet (Invincible)

Lightweight Interceptor / Ground Attack / Advanced Trainer Aircraft


The HAL Ajeet was a further evolution of the British Folland Gnat fighter by way of India.
National Flag Graphic
YEAR: 1977
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) - India

Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the HAL Ajeet model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
LENGTH: 29.69 feet (9.05 meters)
WIDTH: 22.15 feet (6.75 meters)
HEIGHT: 8.04 feet (2.45 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 5,071 pounds (2,300 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 9,204 pounds (4,175 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x TJE HAL (Bristol Siddeley) Orpheus 701-01 turbojet engine developing 4,500 lb thrust.
SPEED (MAX): 715 miles-per-hour (1,150 kilometers-per-hour; 621 knots)
RANGE: 1,087 miles (1,750 kilometers; 945 nautical miles)
CEILING: 45,013 feet (13,720 meters; 8.53 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 6,560 feet-per-minute (1,999 meters-per-minute)

2 x 30mm ADEN internal cannons

Conventional drop stores across four underwing hardpoints (two per wing).
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition

Series Model Variants
• Gnat Mk.2 - Original IAF designation for Ajeet Mk.1 models.
• Ajeet Mk.1 - Single-seat attacker/interceptor
• Ajeet Mk.2 - Two-seat trainer


Detailing the development and operational history of the HAL Ajeet (Invincible) Lightweight Interceptor / Ground Attack / Advanced Trainer Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 3/9/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©
The Indian Air Force was a primary operator of the classic British Folland "Gnat", a swept-wing, subsonic lightweight fighter which also held inherent value as an advanced jet trainer. Nearly 450 of the type, debuting in 1959, were built and India stocked the line through eight total squadrons with 200 being built locally by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). The first all-Indian Gnat saw a first-flight in May of 1962 though the IAF had been operating Gnats for some time now. The aircraft were used to good effect during the Indo-Pak wars of 1965 and 1971 in the fighter and ground-attack roles.

Despite the success of British Gnats in Indian service, the line was fraught with reliability issues and maintenance problems during its time aloft. The various wars only served to drive the point home further under wartime conditions and this led to a new IAF initiative which sought to improve upon the existing design through an indigenous venture under the name of "Ajeet" ("Invincible"). The resulting work produced essentially an all-new derivative of the original British warplane. The last two remaining Gnat production fighters were pulled from their lines and earmarked as prototypes for the growing program.

Among the changes instituted to the Gnat were new wings plumbed for fuel delivery ("wet wings"). Four underwing hardpoints were then added - two under each wing element. The control system, one of the problem points of the original Gnat, was wholly revised as were tail control surfaces for improved handling. The avionics fit was upgraded, a new Martin-Baker GF4 series ejection seat installed, and the undercarriage modified for the better - leaving the Ajeet with nothing more than 60% commonality of parts with the British Gnat.

With these changes in place, a prototype first took to the air on March 6th, 1975. The model was powered by a TJE HAL (Bristol Siddeley) "Orpheus" 701-01 turbojet engine of 4,500 lb thrust output. The second Ajeet prototype went airborne for the first time on November 5th, 1975. A development and trials process ensued to which the project culminated with a first flight of a production-quality airframe on September 30th, 1976. Operational service involving the type began in 1977 and covered fighter, interception, ground attack and advanced training roles.

As completed, the Ajeet featured a length of 29.7 feet, a wingspan of 22 feet and a height of 8 feet. Empty weight was 5,090 lb with a Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) nearing 9,200 lb. Outwardly, the series mimicked the Folland Gnat to a tee though its extra underwing hardpoints set it apart. Performance from the Orpheus engine provided a maximum speed of 715 miles per hour with a combat radius of 110 miles, and a service ceiling of 45,000 feet. Beyond its standard, fixed internal cannon arrangement of 2 x 30mm ADEN guns, the aircraft was cleared to carry conventional drop stores and rocket pods from its underwing hardpoints.

Despite the investment, the Ajeet was destined to never see combat action against neighboring Pakistan. It was withdrawn in 1991 after eighty-nine total aircraft had been built, ten of these being former Gnats upgraded to the Ajeet standard. As such, just three major production variants of the Ajeet were witnessed beginning with the Ajeet Mk.1 - originally designated by the IAF as the "Gnat Mk.2". These were the single-seat ground-attack / interceptor forms. The Ajeet Mk.2 followed as a dedicated two-seat advanced jet trainer.

Ajeets stocked the inventory of No.2 Squadron of the IAF.


Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

Image of collection of graph types

Relative Maximum Speed
Hi: 750mph
Lo: 375mph
This entry's maximum listed speed (715mph).

Graph average of 562.5 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
Graph showcases the HAL Ajeet's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production (89)
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.

Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
Ground Attack
Aerial Tanker
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.

Site Disclaimer  |  Privacy Policy  |  Cookies  |  Site Map Site content ©2003-, All Rights Reserved.

The "Military Factory" name and logo are registered ® U.S. trademarks protected by all applicable domestic and international intellectual property laws. All written content, illustrations, and photography are unique to this website (unless where indicated) and not for reuse/reproduction in any form. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. We do not sell any of the items showcased on this site. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT

Part of a network of sites that includes GlobalFirepower, a data-driven property used in ranking the top military powers of the world.

Facebook Logo YouTube Logo