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Grumman AF Guardian

United States (1950)
Picture of Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft
Picture of Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft Picture of Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft
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The Grumman AF Guardian series served the United States Navy as its first dedicated ASW platform.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 4/5/2017. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

The Grumman AF Guardian line became the United States Navy's first purpose-built, dedicated Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) aircraft when introduced in 1950. The series constituted two carrier-based airframe types to undertake two related battlefield roles - one to serve in the "hunter" role and the other to serve in the "killer" attack role. The type managed a relatively short operational service life with the USN before being retired in 1955 and was not exported. Production totaled 389 units.

Origins of the Guardian lay in a new torpedo bomber design of World War 2 (1939-1945) when the USN sought a successor for its classic Grumman TBF Avenger fleet. Initial work began in 1944 as the war raged on with the USN requirement calling for a large, well-armed aircraft utilizing the usual carrier qualities (reinforced undercarriage, folding wings, arrestor hook) and able to carry a bomb load of 3,600lbs. As a carrier-based system, range was also an important quality and the USN expected a minimum reach of 3,700 miles. The resulting design became the XTB2F but this development proved too large for American carriers of the period and the initiative was scrapped as soon as 1945.

Long-time USN aircraft supplier Grumman moved on a private venture initiative all their own which produced the company model "G-20". Engineers decided on a hybrid powerplant arrangement in which a conventional radial piston engine was fitted at front and a turbojet engine at rear - the combined approach providing the necessary power for carrier-launches and time-to-altitude. The radial engine of choice was the Pratt & Whitney "Double Wasp" series coupled with a Westinghouse 19XB turbojet engine. The fuselage arrangement was such that the crew of two would be seated under a canopy in a side-by-side format, sharing the workload of the aircraft. Its estimated war load was around 4,000lb with standard armament being 2 x 20mm cannons in the wings. An internal bomb bay could house anything from torpedoes to conventional drop bombs and depth charges. The undercarriage was of a "tail dragger" design consistent with carrier-based aircraft of the period.


Picture of the Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft
Picture of the Grumman AF Guardian Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft


Once brought to the attention of the USN, the promising G-20 was given the designation of XTB3F. However, the hybrid radial/turbojet arrangement was soon dropped as too impractical for the design scope. This produced the revised XTB3F-1S designation which covered the first flyable prototype. First flight of the series was finally attained on December 19th, 1945 though, by this time, the war was over and USN requirements began to evolve in the post-war world.

USN authorities now envisioned an all-new role for the XTB3F and this as a dedicated, carrier-based submarine hunter. However, the changes required of the aircraft - with all of the necessary technologies inherent in the sub-hunting role - could not be properly implemented to the Grumman airframe as was. This led to the decision to manufacture two models of the same make - one unarmed airframe (outfitted with sensitive equipment) to serve as the hunting platform and the other armed airframe as the strike platform. The aircraft would be fielded in unison and attack enemy submarines through a "one-two punch" approach. The search-and-track aircraft was given a revised internal arrangement to carry an additional two crewmen (for a total of four). It also sported a large, bulbous pod under its belly housing the APS-20 search radar. The engagement platform still carried the potent war load in its bomb bay but lost its strafing capabilities as the 20mm cannons were removed to save on weight and internal space.

The change in direction delayed the formal service entry of the line considerably for a first flight of a prototype was recorded until November 1948. Search aircraft were designated as XTB3F-1S while attack versions were XTB3F-2S. The -2S form went airborne for the first time in January of 1949.

Both were ultimately accepted after completing their trials. The -1S models were revised to the USN designation of AF-2W with the -2S models becoming the AF-2S. Both used the "Guardian" nickname over the courses of their respective careers. Service entry of the series was on September 27th, 1950 operating initially with squadron VS-24.

As completed, the aircraft designs were consistent with the aircraft of the period. The radial installation was held in the forward section of the aircraft and drove a large four-bladed propeller. The cockpit was just aft of the engine with a framed forward windscreen and a rearward sliding canopy. The fuselage spine was raised to accommodate the required internal fittings including mission equipment, bomb bay, and crew areas. Wing mainplanes were straight appendages with clipped tips and mid-mounted on the sides of the fuselage. The empennage was one of the more unique physical qualities of the Guardian, showcasing a traditional vertical tail fun with low-set horizontal planes but to these planes were fitted smaller vertical tail surfaces given the Guardian a tri-fin tail arrangement.

The aircraft carried a war load of up to 4,000lbs and this could be air-launched torpedoes, depth charged, and drop bombs. Working with the sub-hunter models, the attack versions could swoop in on enemy subs with lethal ordnance loads. Additional firepower support was given through 16 x 5" (127mm) HVAR (High-Velocity Aircraft Rockets), all held underwing.

153 examples of the radar-carrying, submarine-hunting AF-2W version were produced along with 193 examples of the AF-2S attack variant, both powered by P&W R-2800-48 radial engines of 2,400 horsepower. 1952 saw a third form - the AF-3S - introduced with brought about use of a retracting MAD (Magnetic Anomaly Detector) boom feature. 40 of this type further strengthened USN stocks. Final deliveries occurred in March of 1953. A proposed combination hunter-killer airframe - company model G-90 - by Grumman went nowhere.

The Guardian saw combat service during the Korean War (1950-1953) where it was used in the maritime (over-water) patrol role. The large aircraft were soon found to be clunky performers lacking the necessary power for the carrier role. This, and an abnormally high accident rate, did not endear the type to its pilots and crew and led to the series' short service life with the USN. Final forms were retired in August of 1955 with its replacement becoming the Grumman S2F "Tracker" line. Some Guardians remained in reserve until 1957 while others managed extended aerial lives as firefighting platforms into the 1970s.

For its time, the Guardian was the largest, single-engine carrier-based aircraft in operation. Its dimensions included a length of 43.3 feet, a wingspan of 60.7 feet, and a height of 16.1 feet. A preserved example is available for show at the National Naval Aviation Museum of Pensacola, Florida, USA where visitors can truly appreciate the size of this historical aircraft.






Our Data Modules allow for quick visual reference when comparing a single entry against contemporary designs. Areas covered include general ratings, speed assessments, and relative ranges based on distances between major cities.

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Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 400mph
Lo: 200mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (317mph).

    Graph average of 300 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Grumman AF-2S Guardian's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
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Pie graph section
Pie graph section
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Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
389
389


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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National Flag Graphic
Origin: United States
Year: 1950
Type: Carrierborne Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Grumman - USA
Production: 389
Global Operators:
United States
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Grumman AF-2S Guardian model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
3


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
43.34 ft


Meters
13.21 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
60.66 ft


Meters
18.49 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
16.67 ft


Meters
5.08 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
14,584 lb


Kilograms
6,615 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
22,641 lb


Kilograms
10,270 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Pratt & Whitney R-2800-48W "Double Wasp" radial piston engine developing 2,400 horsepower.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
317 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
510 kph


Knots
275 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
1,501 mi


Kilometers
2,415 km


Nautical Miles
1,304 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
15,092 ft


Meters
4,600 m


Miles
2.86 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
1,850 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
564 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of aircraft aerial rockets
Graphical image of an aircraft aerial torpedo
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Armament - Hardpoints (6):

OPTIONAL:
Up to 4,000lb of conventional drop ordnance to include bombs, depth charges, and torpedoes.

16 x 5" (127mm) HVAR (High-Velocity Aricraft Rocket) rockets under wings.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• AF "Guardian" - Base Series Designation
• XTB3F-1 - Three prototype forms outfitted with P&W R-2800-46 engine of 2,300 horsepower and 1 x Westinghouse turbojet engine.
• XTB3F-1S - Two XTB3F-1 prototypes sans turbojet installations.
• XAF-1 - Redesignated XTB3F-1S prototype models
• AF-2S - Fitted with P&W R-2800-48 series engine of 2,400 horsepower; 193 examples.
• AF-2W - Ventral dome housing search radar system; 153 examples.
• AF-3S - Based on AF-2S; retractable MAD boom appendage; 40 examples.
• Model G-90 - Proposed hybrid 2S/2W model; never furthered.