Military Factory logo
Icon of a dollar sign
Icon of military officer saluting
Icon of F-15 Eagle military combat fighter aircraft
Icon of Abrams Main Battle Tank
Icon of AK-47 assault rifle
Icon of navy warships

Saab J35 Draken (Dragon / Kite)

Multirole Fighter Aircraft

Saab J35 Draken (Dragon / Kite)

Multirole Fighter Aircraft

OVERVIEW
SPECIFICATIONS
ARMAMENT
VARIANTS
HISTORY
MEDIA
OVERVIEW



The Saab J 35 Draken was a design ahead of its time, producing the revolutionary double delta wing configuration.
National Flag Graphic
ORIGIN: Sweden
YEAR: 1960
STATUS: Retired, Out-of-Service
MANUFACTURER(S): Saab - Sweden
PRODUCTION: 644
OPERATORS: Austria; Denmark; Finland; Sweden; United States (limited)
SPECIFICATIONS



Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Saab J35F Draken (Dragon / Kite) model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.
CREW: 1
LENGTH: 50.36 feet (15.35 meters)
WIDTH: 30.84 feet (9.4 meters)
HEIGHT: 12.76 feet (3.89 meters)
WEIGHT (EMPTY): 16,369 pounds (7,425 kilograms)
WEIGHT (MTOW): 27,999 pounds (12,700 kilograms)
ENGINE: 1 x Volvo Flygmotor RB6C turbojet with afterburn developing 17,262 lb of thrust.
SPEED (MAX): 1,320 miles-per-hour (2125 kilometers-per-hour; 1,147 knots)
RANGE: 597 miles (960 kilometers; 518 nautical miles)
CEILING: 65,617 feet (20,000 meters; 12.43 miles)
RATE-OF-CLIMB: 39,370 feet-per-minute (12,000 meters-per-minute)




ARMAMENT



STANDARD:
J35A, J35B and J35D models:
2 x 30mm M-55 ADEN cannons

J35F and J35J models:
1 x 30mm M-55 ADEN cannon

OPTIONAL:
Mission-specific ordnance can include any of the following munitions up to 6,393lbs on four (later six) external hardpoints:

2 x Rb-24 (AIM-9P) Sidewinder heat-seeking, short-range air-to-air missiles.
2 x Rb-27 Falcon air-to-air missiles
2 x Rb-28 Falcon air-toair-missiles
2 x 75mm rocket pods (air-to-air)
12 x 135mm rockets
55lb conventional drop bombs
220lb conventional drop bombs
500lb conventional drop bombs
1,000lb convetional drop bombs
External Fuel Tanks
VARIANTS



Series Model Variants
• 201 - Research "Proof of Concept" Airframe Aircraft fitted with Armstrong Siddeley Adder turbojet engine.
• J35 - Official Series Designation; Prototype Designations of which three examples produced; 1st prototype built sans afterburner.
• J35A - Initial Production Model Designation fitted with RM6B 14,432lb thrust engine; after 66th production example, new afterburner system installed into lengthened tail section requiring the use of a small additional two-wheeled undercarriage support; 90 total examples.
• J35B - Improved Fighter Model fitted with data-link and collision-course radar systems; revised radar and gunsight; integrated STRIL 60 system; 73 examples produced.
• SK35C - Two-Seat Operational Trainer Model based on J 35A production models; 25 examples modified.
• J35D - Fitted with RM6C 17,262lb powerplant; improved electrical systems; 120 examples produced.
• S35E - Tactical Reconnaissance Model; sans armament and radar; fitting five cameras in nose; countermeasures suite retained.
• J35F - Definitive Draken; improved weapons handling; provision for advanced air-to-air missile weapons in the form of Hughes-based Falcon series; revised electronics and avionics; 230 examples produced.
• J35F2 (J 35F-II) - Based on J 35F but fitted with Hughes infrared sensor.
• J35J - Modernization standard for 66 total existing J 35F models; modernized armament and electronics; additional pair of weapon pylons.
• J35X - Base Export Model Designation
• J35H - Proposed Export Model; never produced.
• J35XD - Denmark Export Models
• J35XS - Finland Export Model; produced by Saab and assembled by Valmet of Finland.
• J35BS - Finland Export Model; used J 35Bs.
• J35CS - Finland Export Model; used SK 35C trainers.
• J35DS - Finland Export Model; used J 35Ds.
• J35OE - Repurchased Swedish J 35D models for resale to Austria.
• F-35 - Denmark designation for J35XD single-seat fighter.
• TF-35 - Denmark designation for J35XD two-seat trainers.
• RF-35 - Denmark designation for J35XD reconnaissance platforms.


HISTORY



Detailing the development and operational history of the Saab J35 Draken (Dragon / Kite) Multirole Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 7/6/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com.
The Saab J 35 Draken (translated in English to "Dragon" but carrying the meaning of "Kite" based on the aircraft's angular resemblance to a kite) was one of the more excellent aircraft designs to emerge from the Cold War. The aircraft proved a viable answer to the Swedish need for a high-performance interceptor on par or excelling beyond that of anything else being fielded throughout the world at the time. Drakens served from 1960 through 2005 and proved their worth in over 640 production examples. The "double delta" wing arrangement of the type itself proved revolutionary and undoubtedly added to the aircraft's top-flight capabilities.

By the end of the 1940's, the Swedish government was looking forward to the inevitable replacement of the successful Saab J 29 Tunnan line. A specification was put forth in 1949 requiring a new aircraft to provide one-half times more in maximum speed than what was being made available from any other platform entering service anywhere on the globe. This aircraft would also have to provide for a stellar-rate-of-climb as it would be commissioned to intercept incoming transonic enemy bombers. The already-demanding specifications also called for a large weapons capability, long operational endurance and the ability for the platform to operate from short runways as well as roadway surfaces. The latter request was more-or-less a standing requirement of all future Swedish-designed aircraft as well, for it was always envisioned that such aircraft would be responsible for the defense of the country by any means necessary - this meaning that the aircraft could be flown from straight short stretches of Swedish highways for an optimal reach to its combat capabilities.

Erik Bratt led the design team at Saab to fill the requirements of the specification. The selected form became a delta-type wing arrangement known more specifically as a "double delta" (or even "compound delta"). The double delta design was just that - two paired delta wings working in conjunction with one another - one pair was set forward exhibiting a sharper sweep angle and less area than the aft pair, which showcased a more gradual sweep angle. This marriage allowed the new aircraft to promote good handling at both high and low speeds as each set of wings benefitted such flight speeds. Delta wings, at their core, inherently allowed for greater fuel capacity, low-speed stability and a greater weapons load. In comparison, the contemporary Lockheed F-104 Starfighter utilized short stubby wings no more than inches thick, forcing fuel and the undercarriage to be stored in its tubular fuselage. Additionally, the Starfighter was relatively limited in its munitions-carrying capabilities, though its minimalist and single-minded "rocketship" design approached allowed the Starfighter to reach record-setting speeds.

The double delta wing arrangement of the new Saab was mated to a circular fuselage adorned with a single vertical tail fin and successfully tested in the Saab 210 "Lilldraken" ("Little Kite") - essentially a scaled down version of what was to become the full-size J 35 - on January 21st, 1952. A Rolls-Royce Avon (200/300 series) afterburning turbojet engine was selected to power the new aircraft and an agreement was reached to license-produce the powerplant in Sweden as the Svenska Flygmotor RM 6B/C. Three prototypes followed, all powered by the Avon 200 series (the first prototype sans afterburner), with first flight achieved on October 25th, 1955. The second prototype deserves note for its breaking of the sound barrier while in a climb, an unintentional feat but nonetheless showcasing the outstanding design principles of the aircraft. Seating accommodations allowed for a single operator positioned in the forward portion of the fuselage with excellent forward and side views. The undercarriage was of a conventional design featuring two main single-wheeled landing gears retracting outwards into each wing root and a single-wheeled nose gear retracting forwards. The air intakes - along with its double delta wing shape - were defining characteristics of the Draken, featuring elliptical openings to either side of the cockpit. The system eventually merged internally to feed the large single engine exhausting at rear. Short distance landings were further assisted by a deployable drag chute.

As a product of the Cold War, the Draken's armament centered in on its missile-carrying capabilities. Munitions were held on two underwing and two underfuselage hardpoints for a total weapons load of up to 6,393lbs (J 35F) - hardpoints were later increased to six total stations. Capabilities included the use of air-to-air rockets and air-to-air missiles in the form of Rb-24 Sidewinders (license-produced AIM-9P Sidewinders), Rb-27 and Rb-28 Falcons (license-produced AIM-4 Falcons). Other armament options became conventional drop bombs ranging from 55lbs to 1,000lbs and 12 x individually-mounted 135mm rockets. External fuel tanks could take the place of the underfuselage stores. To compliment the weapons array, two M-55 ADEN 30mm cannons mounted at either wing root (outboard of the intakes) were part of the short-range armaments package. Beyond the J 35D-models, all future Draken production models sported a single M-55 cannon to make room for additional avionics. When employing the double cannon layout, Draken pilots had access to 180 cannon rounds for both guns. This was reduced to 100 rounds when utilizing the single cannon configuration.

The Draken was designed from the outset as a dedicated interceptor. Traditionally, this often called for an aircraft with great top-line speed, tremendous rate-of-climb, and ranged weapons tracking and delivery leaving handling qualities as secondary. Despite this origin, the Draken was found to provide for more-than-adequate dogfighting capabilities thanks to its large wing area. The J 35 exhibited a sound turning action and its powerful Mach 2-capable engine meant it could keep pace with any modern fighter of the time. This not only made Drakens exceptional interceptors but also capable air-based defenders when fielded in the dedicated fighter role.




Saab J35 Draken (Dragon / Kite) (Cont'd)

Multirole Fighter Aircraft

Saab J35 Draken (Dragon / Kite) (Cont'd)

Multirole Fighter Aircraft



While the developmental 210 served as the "proof-of-concept" for the Draken series, the J 35 itself was released in a handful of major production variants. This began with the initial J 35A production models dedicated for the interceptor role and built to the tune of some 90 examples. Deliveries of the type began in 1959 and continued on through 1961. Two examples of the A-models existed, known as "Adam kort" and "Adam lang" (translating to "Adam short" and "Adam long" respectively) and were differentiated by the addition of a new afterburning system in a lengthened tail section for improved thrust performance. This modification occurred after the 66th production J 35A and necessitated the use of an additional diminutive set of landing wheels along the aft portion of the lower fuselage. This new landing gear arrangement (coupled with the Drakens large wing area providing inherent drag) also allowed for "tail down" landings.

The J 35B was the next Draken derivative produced in 73 examples from 1962 through 1963. The B-model was given revised gun sights and radar fully-integrated into the STRIL-60 digital combat management system, as well as collision-course radar and a data-link system.

The SK 35C represented up to 25 J 35A production models converted into two-seat trainers. These trainers sported tandem seating for instructor and student and were provided sans armament. The modification of SK 35C's was such that the aircraft could be relatively easily converted back to their A-model fighting forms if need be.

The J 35D followed as the third production Draken model in the series. New engines were fitted in the form of the Rolls-Royce Avon 300 (RM 6C under the Flygmotor production label) with afterburner. Production lasted from 1963 through 1964 in which 120 examples were supplied.

The S 35E became 60 reconnaissance production examples. These aircraft were fielded sans armament and associated radar systems to make room for five cameras in the nose assembly. Though mostly new-build aircraft, nearly half of the operational batch were converted from existing J 35D production models.

The J 35F became the definitive Draken interceptor, produced to the tune of some 230 aircraft between 1965 and 1972. Cannon armament was reduced to 1 x M-55 ADEN 30mm cannon in an effort to add more important avionics facilities. A revised avionics, radar and weapons suite along with improved electronics all greeted the new Draken variant. The weapons suite consisted of a Hughes-designed automatic control system, pulse Doppler radar and provisions for the Hughes Falcon air-to-air missile family. The J 35F-II represented the J 35F model with a Hughes-brand infrared sensor. F-models eventually gave way to the much-improved Saab JAS Gripen multi-role fighters.

The J 35J were 66 J 35F models brought up to a new 1985 government standard in an effort to keep the Draken relevant. These aircraft were differentiated by their updated electronics and cannon, additional weapon pylons for AIM-9 air-to-air missile support and an increase to fuel capacity. J 35J's were essentially overtaken with the arrival of the Saab Viggen.

Due to Sweden's strict export policies, the Draken only served with a handful of nations, severely limiting the type's reach and, quite possibly, a more storied history. Beyond Sweden herself, operators included Austria, Denmark and Finland. The J 35H was a proposed export model but never produced. The J 35OE were 24 re-furbished J 35D models bought back by Saab to re-sell to Austria. Austria became the last global operators of the Draken, retiring their aircraft as recently as 2005. Denmark received the 35XD model designation and consisted of the F-35 strike fighter, TF-35 two-seat trainer and the RF-35 reconnaissance platform. Denmark modified their Drakens to fulfill (albeit to a limited extent) the strike role, offering provision for the AGM-12 Bullpup air-to-surface missile. Finland operated the Draken under the designations of 35BS, 35CS and 35DS. These designations essentially signified their respective Saab production models (J 35B, SK 35C and J 35D). The National Test Pilot School at the Mojave Spaceport in the United States owns at least six Drakens obtained from Denmark.

Several modifications were proposed for the Draken to make it into a dedicated strike fighter for the interim while Saab completed development and production of its JAS 39 Gripen multi-role fighter. Production of the Saab J35 ran from 1955 through 1974 to which some 644 total examples were delivered. All Saab J35 Drakens have since been retired from military service units worldwide. Denmark retired their Drakens in 1993 while Sweden followed in 1999. Finland operated the type up to 2000 while Austria serviced theirs until 2005 (the latter succeeded by F-5 Tiger II jets).




MEDIA







General Assessment (BETA)
Firepower  
Performance  
Survivability  
Versatility  
Impact  


Values are derrived from a variety of categories related to the design, overall function, and historical influence of this aircraft in aviation history.
MF Power Rating (BETA)
40
The MF Power Rating takes into account over sixty individual factors related to this aircraft entry. The rating is out of 100 total possible points.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 1400mph
Lo: 700mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (1,320mph).

    Graph average of 1050 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LDN
LDN
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
BER
 
  MSK
MSK
 
  TKY
TKY
 
  SYD
SYD
 
  LAX
LAX
 
  NYC
Graph showcases the Saab J35F Draken (Dragon / Kite)'s operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
644
644

  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
Small airplane graphic
Supported Roles
A2A
Interception
UAV
Ground Attack
CAS
Training
ASW
Anti-Ship
AEW
MEDEVAC
EW
Maritime/Navy
SAR
Aerial Tanker
Utility/Transport
VIP
Passenger
Business
Recon
SPECOPS
X-Plane/Development
A2A=Air-to-Air; UAV=Unmanned; CAS=Close Support; ASW=Anti-Submarine; AEW=Airborne Early Warning; MEDEVAC=Medical Evac; EW=Electronic Warfare; SAR=Search-Rescue
Supported Arsenal
Graphical image of an air-to-air missile weapon
Graphical image of a short-range air-to-air missile
Graphical image of an aircrat automatic cannon
Graphical image of aircraft aerial rockets
Graphical image of an aircraft rocket pod
Graphical image of an aircraft conventional drop bomb munition
Graphical image of an aircraft external fuel tank
Commitments / Honors
Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for pioneering aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon representing modern aircraft
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur War
Military lapel ribbon for experimental x-plane aircraft
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.