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Sopwith Camel

United Kingdom (1917)
Picture of Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Picture of Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft Picture of Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft
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The classic Sopwith Camel biplane fighter became a turning-point design for the Allies in the air war of World War 1.


Detailing the development and operational history of the Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft.  Entry last updated on 6/14/2018. Authored by Staff Writer. Content ©www.MilitaryFactory.com

Though the Sopwith Camel (the official designation being Sopwith Biplane F.1) was designed as a replacement for the Sopwith Pup, the Camel was in fact a further development of the type. The single-seat biplane fighter provided a pivotal punch to the Allied air campaign and saw large numbers in service by the end of February 1918. The type took part in what was believed to be the largest airborne battle of the war on November that same year. By war's end, the Camel became the most important British fighter of the conflict and would go on to achieve a respected existence in pop culture for decades to come.

The prototype Camel featured a Clerget 9Z engine of 110 horsepower. First flight was achieved at Brooklands in February of 1917 paving the way for a pre-production batch of F.1/3-designated models. The Camel entered frontline service in June of 1917 and immediately claimed its first air victories against the stunned German aviators unfortunate enough to square off against a capable pilot behind the Camel's controls. The major production model became the Camel F.1 (the formal Sopwith Biplane F.1 designation was largely disregarded).

In configuration, the Camel featured equal-span, staggered bi-plane wings (the lower with some dihedral) featuring only a single pair of parallel support struts. Construction consisted of an underlying structure made up mostly of wood covered in fabric with some light alloy skinning over the forward fuselage near the engine. The pilot sat to the rear and underneath the upper wing element. In fact, all major systems were purposefully positioned in the front 7 feet of the fuselage, this including the main landing gears, engine, wings, armament and pilot. Armament consisted of 2 x 7.7mm Vickers-type machine guns firing through the propeller via an interrupter gear (i.e. synchronized). The designation of "Camel" came from the hump created by the fairing over the breeches of these gun installations. Power of the F.1 model was derived from a Clerget 9B 9-cylinder rotary engine of 130 horsepower providing speeds of 115 miles per hour, a ceiling of over 20,000 feet and a range of 485 kilometers.

In practice, the Camel proved a handful to fly, particularly with novice pilots, so much so that it earned a nasty reputation of killing off the less-than-capable aviators. The powerful gyroscopic effect of the Clerget engine coupled with the forward-positioned center of gravity seemingly forced Camel pilots to work for the aircraft's respect. Conversely, the same torque and forward placement of all major systems improved maneuverability beyond those as showcased by her contemporaries to the point that a Camel pilot could count on a responsive right-hand turn almost at will. The natural torque generated by her engine allowed the pilot to achieve quicker turns by using this force to his advantage in a close-knit dogfight. The aircraft was, however, noted for having a particularly brutal spin effect in response to any stalls no doubt due to this very same torque effect. As production progressed, a series of engines were found aboard Camels and included the Clerget types along with the Bentley BR1, the Gnome Monosoupape and the Le Rhone 9J series.


Picture of the Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Picture of the Sopwith Camel Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft


In the end, the Sopwith Camel was credited with the destruction of nearly 1,300 enemy aircraft (some sources go as high as 3,000) making it the most successful Allied aircraft of the war. Despite its successes as a dogfighter, the Camel - like most other 1917 aircraft fighter designs of the war - was slowly slipping out of conventional use as dedicated dogfighters against the new crop of planes. As a result, the Camel would see her last days as a ground strike platform to which it performed this role particularly well. Whereas the Germans fielded their equally effective Halberstadt CL.IV models in this role, the Camel was just as lethal on advancing enemy formations - noted in their involvement in the 1918 March German Offensive, effectively Germany's "last gasp". The Camel saw service in The Great War up through to the last days of the conflict and the signing of the Armistice. Several forms continued in some capacity in the post-war world.

Variants beyond the main F.1 production model included the 2F.1, a navalized Camel featuring folding wings of shorter span, a removable tail section for ease of storage, only a single 7.7mm Vickers synchronized machine gun but also a single 7.7mm Lewis machine gun in the upper wing. These were generally powered by a Bentley BR1 engine. A nightfighter appeared as the Sopwith Camel "Comic" with two Lewis machine guns in the upper wing and worked well in the home defense role against the German Gotha bombers. A more intriguing design alternative appeared in the proposed T.F.1 "Trench Fighter" - a dedicated ground assault model with obliquely downward facing 7.7mm machine guns firing through the cockpit floor (a more natural weapon arrangement for engaging ground targets, particularly those dug in to trenches). Some armor plating was envisioned for pilot and engine protection in this design, important attributes to consider at low altitudes where small arms fire inevitably comes into play.

Canadian Roy Brown was flying his Sopwith Camel on April 21, 1918 and was officially credited with the downing of the legendary German ace Manfred von Richthofen - the "Red Baron" himself. Despite this official credit, more recent research into the subject suggests that Richthofen was actually downed by ground-based fire with several other names being the possible cause of his ultimate demise.

Nearly 5,500 Sopwith Camel biplane fighters were produced.




General Assessment (BETA)
Firepower  
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Performance  
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Survivability  
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Versatility  
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Impact  
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Rating: 84 (of 100)
The rating is an internal assessment derived from forty factors pertaining to this entry.
Relative Maximum Speed Rating
Hi: 120mph
Lo: 60mph
    This entry's maximum listed speed (115mph).

    Graph average of 90 miles-per-hour.
City-to-City Ranges
NYC
 
  LON
LON
 
  PAR
PAR
 
  BER
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  MOS
MOS
 
  TOK
TOK
 
  SYD
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  LAX
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  NYC
Graph showcases the Sopwith F.1 Camel's operational range (on internal fuel) when compared to distances between major cities.
Aviation Era
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Pie graph section
Useful in showcasing the era cross-over of particular aircraft/aerospace designs.
Unit Production Comparison
Comm. Market HI*: 44,000 units
Military Market HI**: 36,183 units
5490
5490


  * Commercial Market High belongs to Cessna 172.

  ** Military Market High belongs to Ilyushin Il-2.


Altitude Visualization
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National Flag Graphic
Origin: United Kingdom
Year: 1917
Type: Single-Seat Biplane Fighter Aircraft
Manufacturer(s): Sopwith Aviation Company - UK
Production: 5,490
Global Operators:
Australia; Belgium; Canada; Estonia; Greece; Latvia; Netherlands; Poland; Imperial Russia; Soviet Union; Sweden; United Kingdom; United States
Historical Commitments / Honors:

Military lapel ribbon for Operation Allied Force
Military lapel ribbon for the Arab-Israeli War
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Britain
Military lapel ribbon for the Battle of Midway
Military lapel ribbon for the Berlin Airlift
Military lapel ribbon for the Chaco War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cold War
Military lapel ribbon for the Cuban Missile Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Falklands War
Military lapel ribbon for the French-Indochina War
Military lapel ribbon for the Golden Age of Flight
Military lapel ribbon for the 1991 Gulf War
Military lapel ribbon for the Indo-Pak Wars
Military lapel ribbon for the Iran-Iraq War
Military lapel ribbon for the Korean War
Military lapel ribbon for the 1982 Lebanon War
Military lapel ribbon for the Malayan Emergency
Military lapel ribbon for the attack on Pearl Harbor
Military lapel ribbon for the Six Day War
Military lapel ribbon for the Soviet-Afghan War
Military lapel ribbon for the Spanish Civil War
Military lapel ribbon for the Suez Crisis
Military lapel ribbon for the Vietnam War
Military lapel ribbon for Warsaw Pact of the Cold War-era
Military lapel ribbon for the WASP (WW2)
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 1
Military lapel ribbon for the World War 2
Military lapel ribbon for the Yom Kippur
* Ribbons not necessarily indicative of actual historical campaign ribbons. Ribbons are clickable to their respective campaigns/operations.
Measurements and Weights icon
Structural - Crew, Dimensions, and Weights:
Unless otherwise noted the presented statistics below pertain to the Sopwith F.1 Camel model. Common measurements, and their respective conversions, are shown when possible.

Operational
CREW


Personnel
1


Dimension
LENGTH


Feet
18.90 ft


Meters
5.76 m


Dimension
WIDTH


Feet
27.89 ft


Meters
8.5 m


Dimension
HEIGHT


Feet
8.69 ft


Meters
2.65 m


Weight
EMPTY


Pounds
926 lb


Kilograms
420 kg


Weight
LOADED


Pounds
1,455 lb


Kilograms
660 kg

Engine icon
Installed Power - Standard Day Performance:
1 x Clerget (Gwynnes) 9B 9-cylinder rotary engine developing 130 horsepower and driving two-bladed propeller unit at the nose.

Performance
SPEED


Miles-per-Hour
115 mph


Kilometers-per-Hour
185 kph


Knots
100 kts


Performance
RANGE


Miles
301 mi


Kilometers
485 km


Nautical Miles
262 nm


Performance
CEILING


Feet
20,997 ft


Meters
6,400 m


Miles
3.98 mi


Performance
CLIMB RATE


Feet-per-Minute
1,085 ft/min


Meters-per-Minute
331 m/min

Supported Weapon Systems:

Graphical image of an aircraft medium machine gun
Armament - Hardpoints (0):

STANDARD:
2 x 7.7mm Vickers machine guns in fixed, forward-firing position along upper fuselage synchronized to fire through the spinning propeller blades.
Variants: Series Model Variants
• Biplane F.1 - Formal Designation
• Camel F.1 - Single-Seat Scout; main production model; fitted with various Clerget, Gnome, Bentley and Le Rhone type engines throughout its run.
• Camel 2F.1 - Naval Variant; shorter wingspan; folding wings and removeable tail sections; 1 x 7.7mm synchronized Vickers gun and 1 x 7.7mm Lewis gun in upper wing; fitted with Bentley BR1 series engines.
• Camel "Comic" - Nightfighter; 2 x 7.7mm Lewis machine guns in upper wing; pilot position moved aft.
• F.1/1 - Tapered Wing Panels
• F.1/3 - Pre-Production Model Designation
• T.F.1 "Trench Fighter" - Proposed Ground Assault Model; obliquely downward facing 2 x 7.7mm Lewis machine guns in cockpit floor; armor plating.