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      Model 1857 12-Pounder Napoleon Towed Field Gun  

    Model 1857 12-Pounder Napoleon Towed Field Gun

    Both the Union and Confederate armies made use of the excellent Model 1857 Napoleon 12-Pounder field guns during the American Civil War.

     Updated: 3/27/2017; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    War planners of the American Civil War were not lost on the value of artillery in their respective campaigns involving the North (Union) and South (Confederacy). They both made equal use of smoothbore muzzle-loading cannon of various caliber that could engage troop concentrations and fortifications at range. Clearly the most popular of all the field artillery guns of the war became the Model 1857 "Napoleon" firing a 12-pound cannonball several thousand yards.

    Prior to the age of the "rifled" cannon, the smoothbore cannon ruled the European battlescape. Smoothbore guns were simpler to produce in number yet devastatingly effective, particularly at close ranges. A rifled barrel allowed for more accuracy at range and went on to replace smoothbore gun types although they offered a slower rate-of-fire overall. Nevertheless, the Model 1857 "Napoleon" 12-Pounder was produced in the United States for the US military Army by several foundries and held origins in the French "Canon Obusier de 12" of 1853. Named after Emperor Napoleon III (nephew of famed general Napoleon I), the French weapon saw extensive service with the army of France throughout the Crimean War (1853-1856) and was of 122mm caliber firing a 4.1 kilogram projectile (either basic ball, shell or canister shot) out to 1,400 yards at 1,440 feet per second. The cannon was a complete system - a gun barrel fitted to a special mounting atop a two-wheeled carriage. Transport was principally by horse or pack animal though it could be repositioned by a crew of handlers over short distances as required.

    The American Model 1857 "Napoleon" was the primary artillery field gun of the Civil War as both sides utilized the type in number, finding the weapon to be highly reliable and devastatingly effective at all ranges. Union production totaled 1,156 units whilst Confederate production reached 501 units and, in the case of the latter, Confederate forces sought to recover as many captured Union Model 1857 guns as possible due to manufacturing limitations of the South. For the Union Army, the Model 1857 was originally adopted to replace the existing inventory of Model 1841 "6-Pounder" Field Guns though both weapons remained in service for the duration of the war by necessity. Union versions were generally identified by their muzzle "swell" (a tapered shaping) while many Confederate examples were simpler in form, often doing away with the swell to save on material and expedite production. Some Confederate forms even appeared in brass or iron as dictated by need and available resources, though their brittle nature made them prone to bursting at the breech area (requiring use of a reinforcement band). At the Battle of Gettysburg alone, 142 of the available 360 Union cannons were of the Model 1857 Napoleon type.

    Model 1857 12-Pounder Napoleon Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1857
    Type: Towed Field Gun
    National Origin: United States
    Manufacturer(s): Union Foundries - USA
    Production: 1,657

    Design (Crew Space, Dimensions, Weight, and Systems)

    Operating Crew: 7
    Length: 5.25 feet (1.60 meters)

    Operating Weight: 2 tons (1,626 kg; 3,585 lb)

    Nuclear / Biological / Chemical Protection: None
    Nightvision Equipment: None

    Installed Power and Standard Road Performance

    Engine(s): None. This is a towed artillery piece.

    Engagement Range: 1 miles (2 km)

    Armament and Ammunition

    1 x 4.62" (117mm) smoothbore barrel

    Dependent upon ammunition carrier.

    Global Operators / Customers

    Confederate States; United States

    Model Variants

    Model 1857 "Napoleon" 12-Pounder - Base Series Designation; Union variant identified by "swell" at muzzle most Confederate pieces lacked this feature due to metal shortages; Confederate foundries made approximately six variations of the base design.

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