Model 1857 12-Pounder Napoleon Towed Field Gun
Both the Union and Confederate armies made use of the excellent Model 1857 Napoleon 12-Pounder field guns during the American Civil War.
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War planners of the American Civil War were not lost on the value of artillery in their respective campaigns involving the North (Union) and South (Confederacy). They both made equal use of smoothbore muzzle-loading cannon of various caliber that could engage troop concentrations and fortifications at range. Clearly the most popular of all the field artillery guns of the war became the Model 1857 "Napoleon" firing a 12-pound cannonball several thousand yards.
Prior to the age of the "rifled" cannon, the smoothbore cannon ruled the European battlescape. Smoothbore guns were simpler to produce in number yet devastatingly effective, particularly at close ranges. A rifled barrel allowed for more accuracy at range and went on to replace smoothbore gun types although they offered a slower rate-of-fire overall. Nevertheless, the Model 1857 "Napoleon" 12-Pounder was produced in the United States for the US military Army by several foundries and held origins in the French "Canon Obusier de 12" of 1853. Named after Emperor Napoleon III (nephew of famed general Napoleon I), the French weapon saw extensive service with the army of France throughout the Crimean War (1853-1856) and was of 122mm caliber firing a 4.1 kilogram projectile (either basic ball, shell or canister shot) out to 1,400 yards at 1,440 feet per second. The cannon was a complete system - a gun barrel fitted to a special mounting atop a two-wheeled carriage. Transport was principally by horse or pack animal though it could be repositioned by a crew of handlers over short distances as required.