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  • Object 279 (Obyekt 279) Super Heavy Tank

    The Obyekt 279 was an interesting foray into developing a heavy-class tank system utilizing multiple tracks.

     Updated: 8/15/2015; Authored By JR Potts, AUS 173d AB; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    The Russian Obyekt (translating to "Object") 279 Soviet heavy tank was developed in 1957 at the Kirov Plant in Leningrad by L. Troyanov, an engineer in charge of prototype tank design. The heavy tank's design purpose was to wage war on the European countryside battlefield in the impending World War 3 scenario. The new tank design needed to maneuver over rough open ground that was inaccessible to conventional light or medium tanks currently in the Soviet inventory. This was accomplished by a "track chain" that ran along both sides of her entire track area. Most tanks used two tracks - set one on each hull side - while the 279 tank was equipped with a 4-track running gear mounted on two rectangular hollow beams that also were used as fuel tanks. The track adjuster itself was a worm-type.

    The 279 model was noted for its highly unusual yet functional second pair of T95 caterpillars (or tracks). The weight per-square-foot of this heavy vehicle was equally spread out across the 4 track systems. In this arrangement, the 279's operating weight did not exceed the maximum pounds-per-square-foot that would have reduced her ability to carry out her given mission on any type of ground. The new design approach increased cross country performance while also allowing her to traverse natural obstructions such as soft ground, swampy topography, fields with cut trees and even snow. The 279 could also cut across Czech-style hedgehogs, 3-foot high man-made tank obstacles in an "L" or "H" shape, that were also popularized as beach obstacles by many nations of the time.

    The thickness of the glacis plate armor (the sloped front-most section of the hull) of the 279 was 269mm (10.591 in) and the thickest spot on the turret measured in at 305mm (12.008 in). The tank was covered by a thin, elliptical shield giving it an appearance more akin to a submarine than any previous tank design. The excessively shaped hull gave the 279 an inherent protection against HEAT (High-Explosive, Anti-Tank) shaped charge projectiles from enemy tanks. The shape was also designed to prevent the tank system from flipping over in the event of a shock wave from a nuclear explosion. To help deflect the wave, the tank was built using uneven shapes of variable thickness and slope. The all-cast front portion of the hull was rounded in shape with thin armor panels for effective use against HEAT projectiles, which sharply ran around the edges of the front and sides of the hull. The sides of the hull were cast with like-armor panels. The cast turret had a front armor consisting of round protective panels mounted at a seventy-degree angles with a protected turret ring.

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    Object 279 (Obyekt 279) Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1957
    Type: Super Heavy Tank
    National Origin: Soviet Union
    Manufacturer(s): Chelybinsk, Nizhnyi Tagil and Kirov Plants - Soviet Union
    Production: 1

    Design (Crew Space, Dimensions, Weight, and Systems)

    Operating Crew: 4
    Length: 33.01 feet (10.06 meters)
    Width: 12.01 feet (3.66 meters)
    Height: 7.28 feet (2.22 meters)

    Operating Weight: 60 tons (54,431 kg; 120,000 lb)

    Nuclear / Biological / Chemical Protection: Yes
    Nightvision Equipment: Yes - Optional

    Installed Power and Standard Road Performance

    Engine(s): 1 x 16-cylinder 2DG-8M engine developing 1,000 to 1,050 horsepower.

    Maximum Road Speed: 34 mph (55 km/h)
    Maximum Road Range: 186 miles (300 km)

    Armament and Ammunition

    1 x 130mm (60 caliber) M-65 rifled cannon main gun with semi-automatic loading system offering between 5 and 7 rounds-per-minute firing.
    1 x 14.5mm KPVT heavy machine gun co-axially mounted in turret.
    Smoke Laying Equipment

    24 x 125mm APDS projectiles
    300 x 14.5mm ammunition

    Global Operators / Customers

    Soviet Union

    Model Variants

    Obyeky 279 - Base Developmental Designation; single prototype example.