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    HIT Al Khalid (MBT 2000) Main Battle Tank (MBT)

    The Al Khalid is nothing more than the NORINCO brand Type 90-IIM Main Battle Tank developed to suit Pakistani Army requirements.

     Updated: 2/13/2015; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    The Al-Khalid is essentially a hybrid tank design with systems, armament and subsystems originating from a variety of global sources though the tank system itself, as a whole, is a locally-produced product native to Pakistan. Its indirect lineage can be traced back to the Soviet Cold War-era T-54 series while its direct lineage stems from the Chinese NORINCO Type 90-II main battle tank. Additionally, engines are of Ukrainian origin while production is handled within Pakistan. In most respects, the Al-Khalid can be viewed as the "ultimate" evolution of the successful Soviet T-54 system.

    Design on the Al-Khalid ran through most of the 1990's to which the system was then known as the "MBT 2000". Design was handled on both the part of NORINCO Factory 617 of China and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) of Pakistan with a partnership officially inked in January of 1990. Prototypes appeared the following year and went into evaluation. At the core of the new tank design was to be ease-of-production, a system that could readily accept the use of foreign powerpacks.

    There appeared four major prototypes designated simply as P1, P2, P3 and P4. Each was differentiated mainly by their selection of powerplants. The P1 sported the German-based MTU-396 diesel engine mated to an LSG-3000 automatic transmission while fielding a Chinese-made 125mm main gun, fire-control system and autoloader. The P2 was similar in scope but with a Perkins Condor 1,200 horsepower diesel engine (used in the successful British Challenger MBT series), a French SESM ESM500 (ala the Le Clerc MBT) and western-based fire-control system. The P3 sported a Ukrainian 6TD-2 1,200 horsepower engine but essentially the P2 prototype. The P4 was given the NATO-standard 120mm main gun tied into a western-based fire-control system along with a German-based MTU-871/TCM AVDS-1790 diesel engine with LSG-3000 automatic transmission. The P4 was intended to become an export product for Pakistan to produce, operate and sell to other prospective global buyers.

    P2's Challenger-based engine proved too temperamental for the rigors of desert warfare and was ultimately too expensive for a long-term powerpack solution. The P4 saw its demise when an arms embargo was placed against Pakistan for their testing of a nuclear weapon in 1998. As such, the P3 with her Ukrainian powerplant proved the best for both cost and operations in the hot Pakistani climate. The new tank system was born under the Chinese designation of "Type 90-IIM" (showcasing its obvious lineage to the NORINCO Type 90-II model) along with an export designation of "MBT 2000". In Pakistan, the tank took on the name of "Al-Khalid".

    Pakistan received much experience in its two major Indo-Pak Wars against India resulting in a nation that was now more or less knowledgeable about what it wanted in their next main battle tank. Pakistan had already been granted license-production rights to the Chinese Type 85-IIAP series and manufactured the type through Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT), to which the experience in this type of industrial-size, heavy duty manufacturing proved priceless to Pakistan's future within localized production of armored vehicles. As such, HIT was tabbed for producing the new Al-Khalid and the tank entered service with the Pakistani Army in 2001 with local Pakistani production continuing even today. It is expected that some 600 total Al-Khalids will be delivered to the Pakistani Army by production's end.

    HIT Al Khalid (MBT 2000) Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 2001
    Type: Main Battle Tank (MBT)
    National Origin: Pakistan
    Manufacturer(s): Heavy Industries Taxila - Pakistan / NORINCO - China
    Production: 600

    Design (Crew Space, Dimensions, Weight, and Systems)

    Operating Crew: 3
    Length: 35.01 feet (10.67 meters)
    Width: 11.15 feet (3.40 meters)
    Height: 7.55 feet (2.30 meters)

    Operating Weight: 53 tons (48,000 kg; 105,822 lb)

    Nuclear / Biological / Chemical Protection: Yes
    Nightvision Equipment: Yes

    Installed Power and Standard Road Performance

    Engine(s): 1 x KMDB 6TD-2 6-cylinder water-cooled turbocharged diesel engine developing 1,200 horsepower.

    Maximum Road Speed: 45 mph (72 km/h)
    Maximum Road Range: 311 miles (500 km)

    Armament and Ammunition

    1 x 125mm smoothbore main gun
    1 x 12.7 anti-aircraft machine gun
    1 x 7.62mm co-axial machine gun
    2 x 6 smoke grenade dischargers

    39 x 125mm projectiles
    500 x 12.7mm ammunition
    2,000 x 7.62mm ammunition
    12 x smoke grenades

    Global Operators / Customers

    Bangladesh; China (training only); Morocco; Myanmar; Pakistan

    Model Variants

    Type 90-IIM - Chinese NORINCO-produced Main Battle Tank on which the Al-Khalid is based on.

    P1 - Pilot Vehicle - Chinese 125mm main gunwith autoloader; German MTU diesel engine; Chinese FCS.

    P2 - Pilot Vehicle - Chinese 125mm main gun with autoloader; Perkins Condor diesel engine; Western FCS.

    P3 - Pilot Vehicle - Chinese 125mm main gun with autoloader; Ukrainian diesel engine; Western FCS.

    P4 - Pilot Vehicle; NATO-standard 120mm main gun; German MTU diesel engine.

    MBT 2000 - Chinese Designation for Type 90-IIM export.

    Al-Khalid - Initial production model

    Al-Khalid I - Improved Al Khalid; improved systems (fire control, jammers); increased main gun ammunition to 49 rounds.

    Al-Khalid II - Improved Al Khalid I; modular armor kit; revised armor formula; 1,500 horsepower diesel engine.

    VT-1A - Export variant of the Type 90-II; Chinese-aligned turret, engines, and internals.

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