In 1990, the United States Air Force (USAF) sought a quick-reacting, medium-class hauler through its "Rapid Response Intra-Theater Airlifter" (RRITA) initiative and took on deliveries of the Italian G.222 as the C-27A "Spartan". These G.222s were given American-centric avionics by Chrysler Aerospace and based out of Howard Air Force Base in Panama. In 1995, Alenia and Lockheed Martin formally joined forces to incorporate the "all-glass" cockpit and General Electric T64G engines (powering four-bladed propeller assemblies) being designed for the upcoming C-130J "Super Hercules" into the existing G.222 airframe. This joint initiative - under the new "Lockheed Martin Alenia Tactical Transport Systems" (LMATTS) brand label - began the equally-new "C-27J" designation which appeared in 1996 (the Spartan designation was retained) and, by the end of development, the intended General Electric powerplants have been given up in favor of the improved Rolls-Royce AR 2100 turboprop series while the original four-bladed propellers were dropped in favor of a newer six-bladed design. The resulting configuration produced an aircraft that was superior to the original Alenia G.222 design, able to fly faster and farther than previously intended. Serial production ensued to which the C-27J entered service with the Italian Air Force in 2006.
In 2006, Lockheed abandoned the joint partnership with Alenia to distance itself from the competing C-27J and attempt to sell the modernized C-130J "Super Hercules" to the USAF/US Army for its new "Joint Cargo Aircraft" (JCA) requirement. Competitor Raytheon partnered with EADS North America to showcase the Spanish-made CASA C-295 twin-engine transport while Alenia partnered with Boeing and L-3 Communications to produce the "Global Military Aircraft Systems" (GMAC) consortium in promoting the C-27J Spartan. The Pentagon went on to select the C-27J and first flight of an American C-27J was recorded on June 17th, 2008.
The US Army is slated to receive up to 75 C-27J airframes while the USAF is expecting its order to total some 70 units. Production of American C-27Js will take place locally at Cecil Field, Florida. To date (2012), there are 38 C-27J Spartans on order to the United States military. Italy will support 12 examples as will Greece. Romania contracted for seven examples while Mexico and Morocco have penciled in four apiece. Three will go to Bulgaria and Lithuania each while Australia will become another foreign recipient (with as many as ten). Canada is reportedly interested in the breed as well while Slovakia is intent on procuring a pair of examples. India is interested in 16 such aircraft while Taiwan seeks six and the Philippines three. Deliveries of many of these C-27J systems on order will begin or have begun in 2012 with future orders expected from now until 2015 and possibly beyond.
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