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  • Junkers Ju 86 Passenger Airliner / Reconnaissance Aircraft / Medium Bomber

    The Junkers Ju 86 served as passenger airliner, reconnaissance platform and bomber during her tenure.

     Updated: 5/16/2016; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    Before the power of the German Luftwaffe was unleashed upon the world in World War 2 (1939-1945) it undertook various secret programs to modernize and strengthen its inventory in the pre-war years. These projects often times took the form of a civilian-minded products though the military intent was buried in the requirements. This proved the case with the Junkers Ju 86, a twin-engined medium-class aircraft that was developed under the guise of a 10-passenger civilian airliner while also evolved along the lines of a medium bomber type.

    Work began in 1934 with the civilian model intended to fulfill a requirement for carrier Deutsche Luft Hansa (1926-1945). The military model was to be fulfilled by way of competition between rivals Junkers and Heinkel - the former producing their lesser-known Ju 86 while delivered its classic He 111 series (detailed elsewhere on this site). While both were adopted for military service, the He 111 went on to have a fuller wartime career with the Luftwaffe (and others). The companies were contracted to produce five total prototypes apiece.

    Junkers engineers adopted a smooth, all-metal skinned design with low-set monoplane wings. The wing were moved ahead of midships with the flight deck set in a stepped arrangement behind and above a heavily glazed nose section. The fuselage became a long, tapered body housing the various systems required - including the bomb bay which held its war load vertically. The tail unit consisted of a split vertical fin arrangement common to many large aircraft of the period. A "tail-dragger", all-wheeled undercarriage was used with only the main legs being made retractable. The engines were held in nacelles mounted along the wing leading edges. Power was to come from a pair of Junkers Jumo 204 series diesel-fueled engines - the diesel approach intended to provide the aircraft with good fuel efficiency.

    Standardized armament for military forms would be 3 x 7.92mm MG15 machine guns - one fitted to the nose, the other in a dorsal mounting and the last in a ventral gondola position. The bomb load would total 2,200 lb of internally-held stores.

    The diesel engines were not ready in time for the first military-minded form (Ju 86 ab1) so it was outfitted with Siemens radial engines and this product marked a first flight on November 4th, 1934. Then followed another military prototype (Ju 86 cb) in January and it was in April that the initial civilian-minded prototype (Ju 86 V4) arrived - the bomb bay replaced by a passenger cabin. Ju 86 Ba1 was a military transport prototype and Ju 86 V5 became another prototype form - this serving as the basis for the Ju 86A production models.

    By this time serial manufacture was underway and led by the Ju 86A-0 which numbered thirteen pre-series aircraft. Ju 86A-1 was the initial bomber in service and Ju 86B-0 marked seven pre-series aircraft for the transport role and these became the Ju 86C-1 in service for Luft Hansa, carrying Junkers Jumo 205C diesel engines. Ju 86D-1 was the bomber variant and introduced a revised tail cone for improved stability. The Ju 86E-1, another bomber product, was outfitted with a pair of BMW 132F radial engines. Ju 86E-2 followed with 2 x BMW 132N radials.

    Images Gallery


    Junkers Ju 86R Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1936
    Type: Passenger Airliner / Reconnaissance Aircraft / Medium Bomber
    National Origin: Nazi Germany
    Manufacturer(s): Junkers - Germany
    Production Total: 150

    Structural (Crew Space, Dimensions and Weights)

    Operating Crew: 2
    Length: 54.00 feet (16.46 meters)
    Width: 104.99 feet (32.00 meters)
    Height: 15.42 feet (4.70 meters)

    Weight (Empty): 14,771 lb (6,700 kg)
    Weight (MTOW): 25,419 lb (11,530 kg)

    Installed Power and Standard Day Performance

    Engine(s): 2 x Junkers Jumo 207B-3/V diesel engines delivering 1,000 horsepower each.

    Maximum Speed: 261 mph (420 kph; 227 knots)
    Maximum Range: 982 miles (1,580 km)
    Service Ceiling: 42,651 feet (13,000 meters; 8.08 miles)
    Rate-of-Climb: 900 feet-per-minute (274 m/min)

    Armament / Mission Payload

    1 x MG 15 machine gun in nose
    1 x MG 15 machine gun in rear-facing dorsal position.
    1 x MG 15 machine gun in rear-facing ventral gondola position.

    Up to 2,200 lb of bombs held internally.

    Global Operators / Customers

    Austria; Australia; Bolivia; Chile; Nazi Germany; Hungary; Imperial Japan; Manchukuo; Portugal; Romania; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland

    Model Variants (Including Prototypes)

    Ju 86 - Base Series Designation

    Ju 86abl - Initial Bomber Prototype

    Ju 86bal - Initial Transport Prototype

    Ju 86cb - Second Bomber Prototype

    Ju 86 V4 - Commercial Transport Prototype; to become the Ju 86B production model.

    Ju 86 V5 - Bomber Prototype; to become the Ju 86A production model.

    Ju 86A-0 - Pre-Production Bomber Models; 13 examples delivered.

    Ju 86A-1 - Initial Production Bomber Variant

    Ju 86B-0 - Pre-Production Transport Models; 7 examples delivered.

    Ju 86C-1 - Lufthansa Transport Models; fitted with 2 x Junkers Jumo 205C series diesel engines.

    Ju 86D-1 - Bomber Variant

    Ju 86E-1 - Luftwaffe Bomber Variant; fitted with 2 x BMW 132F series radial piston engines.

    Ju 86E-2 - Fitted with 2 x BMW 132N series uprated radial piston engines.

    Ju 86G-1 - Rounded Glass Nose

    Ju 86K-1 - South African and Sweden Export Model

    Ju 86K-2 - Hungarian Export Model

    Ju 86K-4 - Sweden Export Model; fitted with 2 x Bristol Pegasus III series radial piston engines; based on Ju 86K-1 production model.

    Ju 86K-5 - Swedish license-production model; fitted with 2 x license-produced Bristol Pegasus XII radial piston engines.

    Ju 86K-6 - Chilean and Portuguese Export Model

    Ju 86K-7 - Austrian Export Model; fitted with 2 x BMW 132 series radial piston engines.

    Ju 86K-13 - Swedish license-production model; fitted with license-produced Swedish or Polish powerplants.

    Ju 86P-1 - High-Altitude Bomber Variant; fitted with 2 x Junkers Jumo 207 series diesel engines and turbochargers.

    Ju 86P-2 - Photo-Reconnaissance Platform retaining bomber provisioningl fitted with 2 x Junkers Jumo 207 series diesel engines with turbochargers.

    Ju 86R-1 - Reconnaissance Model; fitted with 2 x Junkers Jumo 207 series diesel engines.

    Ju 86R-2 - Dedicated Bomber Variant

    Ju 86R-3 - Fitted with 2 x Junkers Jumo 208 series engines.

    Ju 186 - Proposed four-engine, high-altitude bomber model; never produced.

    Ju 286 - Proposed six-engine, high-altitude bomber model; never produced.

    K85 - Proposed Swedish torpedo bomber.