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  • Cessna O-1 Bird Dog (L-19) Liaison and Observation Aircraft

    Due to its inherent multi-role capabilities, the lightweight Cessna Bird Dog saw extensive action in the skies over Korea and Vietnam.

     Updated: 3/19/2014; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    In 1947, the United States Army Air Forces ceased to exist in the American military structure, replaced instead by two autonomous entities in the United States Army and the United States Air Force (USAF). This left the United States Army without its own dedicated air support wing which was still required in fulfilling various battlefield roles including light scout, liaison, artillery spotting and observation. Following the events of World War 2 (1939-1945) a very robust product was now envisioned revolving around use of all-metal skin. The U.S. Army then put forth a requirement for a new two-man, single-engined platform capable of short-field/rough-field operations with excellent handling at low altitudes and equally-excellent vision out-of-the-cockpit. Taking their Model 170 as a starting point, the Cessna concern entered their Model 305A into the competition.

    The Cessna design incorporated a conventional aircraft arrangement with the engine fitted to a compartment at front and a single-finned tail unit at rear. The undercarriage was simplistic yet rugged, made up of a pair of single-wheeled main landing gear legs and a small tail wheel. The whole undercarriage was non-retractable which further aided in simplicity and kept procurement and maintenance costs in check. The engine drove a two-bladed propeller assembly at front while the cockpit utilized a tandem-seating (inline) arrangement for the two crew and all sides of the compartment were windowed for maximum viewing. To further improve on a largely unobstructed view, the straight monoplane wing assembly was sat upon the top of the cabin and this also gave good lifting qualities and strong handling at low speeds. Indeed pilots soon learned they could simply "float" their Model 305s "in space" without stalling and land with very little runway distance ahead. Struts emerging from the lower fuselage sides ran upwards to each wing underside for added strength and support of the flexible structure.

    First flight of the Model 305 occurred on December 14th, 1949 with the end result being a U.S. Army contract. The aircraft was formally accepted into service as the L-19A "Bird Dog" with introduction set for December of 1950. The "Bird Dog" name was provided by Cessna through an employee contest and referenced hunting dogs used by masters to help identify possible game.

    Due to the growing American commitment in the Korean War (1950-1953), the Bird Dog was immediately pressed into service in the conflict as soon as usable numbers became available. The American military went ahead with a 3,200-strong order of the small, agile aircraft and manufacture of these aircraft spanned from 1950 into 1959. Eventually they stocked both U.S Army and USMC air wings and their roles broadened from general liaison and observation service to more harrowing MEDEVAC, artillery spotting and airborne communication relay roles. In 1953, an instrument trainer variant was developed and hurried placed into production to serve new generations of Bird Dog flyers and spotters. The Korean War can to an uneasy cease-fire in 1953 though Bird Dog use continued.

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    Cessna O-1E Bird Dog Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1950
    Type: Liaison and Observation Aircraft
    National Origin: United States
    Manufacturer(s): Cessna / Ector Aircraft - USA
    Production Total: 3,431

    Structural (Crew Space, Dimensions and Weights)

    Operating Crew: 2
    Length: 25.75 feet (7.85 meters)
    Width: 35.99 feet (10.97 meters)
    Height: 7.28 feet (2.22 meters)

    Weight (Empty): 1,614 lb (732 kg)
    Weight (MTOW): 2,401 lb (1,089 kg)

    Installed Power and Standard Day Performance

    Engine(s): 1 x Continental O-470-11 six piston engine developing 213 horsepower.

    Maximum Speed: 130 mph (209 kph; 113 knots)
    Maximum Range: 530 miles (853 km)
    Service Ceiling: 20,341 feet (6,200 meters; 3.85 miles)
    Rate-of-Climb: 1,040 feet-per-minute (317 m/min)

    Armament / Mission Payload

    8 x air-to-surface rockets

    Global Operators / Customers

    Australia; Austria; Canada; Chile; France; Indonesia; Italy; Japan; Laos; Malta; Norway; Pakistan; Philippines; South Korea; South Vietnam; Spain; Thailand; United States; Vietnam

    Model Variants (Including Prototypes)

    L-19A - Initial US Army Production Model; 2,486 examples produced; redesignated to O-1A beginning in 1962.

    TL-19A - Dual Control Trainer Conversion Models from L-19A production models; redesignated to TO-1A beginning in 1962.

    XL-19B - Proposed L-19B production model; fitted with 1 x Boeing XT-50-BO-1 turboprop engine of 210 shaft horsepower; single example constructed.

    XL-19C - Proposed L-19C production model; fitted with 1 x Continental CAE XT51-T-1 turboprop engine of 210 shaft horsepower; 2 examples produced.

    TL-19D (Cessna Model 305B) - Based on the L-19A production model; instrument trainer version; dual control cockpit; 310 examples produced; redesignated to TO-1D beginning in 1962.

    L-19E (Cessna Model 305C) - Based on L-19A production model; improved form; increased gross weight; 469 examples produced; redesignated to O-1E beginning in 1962.

    OE-1 - USMC model based on L-19A; 60 examples delivered; redesignated to O-1B beginning in 1962.

    OE-2 (Cessna Model 321) - Revised fuselage and Cessna Model 180 wing assembly; based on the OE-1 production model; 27 examples produced; redesignated to O-1C beginning in 1962.

    O-1A - 1962 Redesignation of L-19A production model.

    TO-1A - Trainer conversion form of O-1A production models.

    O-1B - 1962 redesignation of OE-1 production models.

    O-1C - 1962 redesignation of OE-2 production models.

    O-1D - Forward Air Controller conversion models from TO-1D production models; USAF usage.

    TO-1D - 1962 redesignation of TL-19D production models.

    O-1E - 1962 redesignation of L-19E production models.

    O-1F (Cessna Model 305E) - USAF Forward Air Controller conversion models.

    O-1G (Cessna Model 305D) - USAF Forward Air Controller conversion models.

    CO-119 (Cessna Model L-182) - Canadian Army designation; seating for four; 1 x Continental O-470-L piston engine of 230 horsepower.

    SIAI-Marchetti SM.1019 - Italian Army designation fitted with turboprop powerplant.