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    HAL HF-24 Marut (Spirit of the Tempest) Fighter-Bomber (1967)

    HAL HF-24 Marut (Spirit of the Tempest) Fighter-Bomber (1967)

    The HAL HF-24 Marut became the first indigenous Indian jet fighter.

    Picture of HAL HF-24 Marut (Spirit of the Tempest)

    Staff Writer (9/8/2015): The modern Indian Air Force (IAF) has a relatively young history when compared to world heavyweights but strides have been made at supporting a local military industrial effort to make the nation a self-sustained world military power. The journey has included endeavors such as the HAL HF-24 "Marut" ("Spirit of the Tempest"), India's first jet-powered fighter. Design of the aircraft was headed by famous German aviation engineer Kurt Tank (creator of the classic World War 2-era Focke-Wulf Fw 190 piston-powered fighter) and involved Indian engineering from Hindustan Aircraft Limited (HAL).

    Despite its promising nature, only 147 Maruts were ever completed and the aircraft appeared in service for only a short time, being retired from frontline service in 1985 after a career that began in the 1960s. It only ever served the IAF and was not exported in any form while its legacy showcased an aircraft that proved expensive to develop that produced only marginal results in service.

    Years removed since the close of World War 2 (1939-1945) - and ultimately gaining independence from the British crown - the Indian Air Staff set to work on a jet fighter project that would allow the nation a new form of independence, this from military reliance from abroad. With little or no turbojet development experience on hand, the ministry hired Kurt Tank to help begin a new chapter for the Indian Air Force. Tank set about to create an aircraft from the experience gained during and after the war related to swept-wing, jet-powered designs. Along with his expertise, about a dozen more German engineers joined the fray, relocating to India to assist with the challenging project.

    Prior to Tank's arrival, he worked in Argentina with his team to provide a new swept-wing, jet-powered combat aircraft for the Argentine military. One design concept became the FMA IA-43 "Pulqui" ("Arrow") which featured the classic 1950s fighter form - nose-mounted intake, forward-set cockpit, "T-style" tail unit, and swept-back wing mainplanes. Its qualities were noticeably from the such aircraft developments as the late-war Focke-Wulf Ta 183 "Huckebein" jet-powered fighter. Despite a first flight of the Argentine aircraft on June 27th, 1950, only five were ever completed and the design came to nothing by the end.

    Design work on the all-weather, Mach 2- capable Indian fighter began in 1957. The "X-241" was developed as a full-scale research glider to prove the concept sound at low cost. First flight (by towing) was on April 3rd, 1959 and over 85 flights followed until a failed nosewheel leg led to a crash landing. A full-working prototype reached the skies on June 17th, 1961 and featured twin turbojet engines developing nearly 5,000 lb of thrust each, a single-seat design, and low-mounted swept-wings along a basic cylindrical fuselage. The tail unit featured a single vertical fin with low-mounted elevators along the fuselage sides.

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    Technical Specifications:
    HAL HF-24 Marut (Spirit of the Tempest)


    Focus Model: HAL HF-24 Marut
    Origin: India
    Manufacturer: Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL) - India
    Service Entry: 1967
    Production Total: 147
    Crew: 1


    Length: 52.07 ft (15.87 m)
    Width: 29.53 ft (9.00 m)
    Height: 11.81ft (3.60 m)
    Weight (Empty): 13,658 lb (6,195 kg)
    Weight (MTOW): 24,048 lb (10,908 kg)


    Powerplant: 2 x HAL / Rolls Royce Orpheus Mk 703 turbojet engines developing 4,850 lb of thrust each.


    Maximum Speed: 691 mph (1,112 kmh; 600 kts)
    Maximum Range: 620 miles (997 km)
    Service Ceiling: 40,000 ft (12,192 m; 7.6 miles)
    Rate-of-Climb: 4,444 feet-per-minute (1,355 m/min)


    Hardpoints: 4 (all underwing)
    Armament Suite:
    4 x 30mm ADEN internal cannons
    50 x 68mm (2.68") MATRA rockets in retractable underside launcher pack.

    Variable external drop ordnance up to 4,000 lb across four underwing hardpoints.

    HF-24 "Marut" - Base Series Name

    HAL X-241 - Research glider used in testing

    Marut Mk 1 - Base Production Model

    Marut Mk 1A - Preproduction model with Bristol Siddeley Orpheus 703 engines of 5,720lb thrust.

    Marut Mk 1 BX - Fitted with Egyptian Brandner E-300 turbojet engine; single example testbed.

    Marut Mk 1T - Twin-seat trainer variant

    Marut Mk 1R - Fitted with 2 x Bristol Siddeley Orpheus 703 engines of 5,720lb thrust; two examples.

    Marut Mk 2 - Proposed variant with Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour engines.