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  • Vickers Windsor Heavy Bomber Prototype

    Developed for the Royal Air Force as a heavy bomber during World War 2, the Vickers Windsor was no longer needed for its intended role - limiting the program to just three aircraft.

     Updated: 6/16/2016; Authored By Staff Writer; Content ¬©www.MilitaryFactory.com

    Beyond the "Warwick" of 1939, the Vickers concern failed to net much interest from the Royal Air Force (RAF) in another heavy bomber design during World War 2 (1939-1945). In seeking a successor for its "Wellington" medium bomber series, company engineers went to work on an attempt to fulfill Air Ministry Specification B.11/41, this product intended as a twin-engine, high-speed medium bomber. However, this design did not live up to its proposed expectation so a four-engined form was drawn up in its place and the same "geodesic" construction practice used on earlier Vickers large aircraft was to be employed - the process incorporating a "basket-weave" type understructure covered over in fabric to produce a lightweight-yet-strong body.

    As the same time, company engineers were attempting to develop a Wellington bomber with pressurized cabin spaces for the crew operating at high altitudes and Air Ministry authorities pushed for such a feature on the existing Warwick. Added to this was a new elliptical wing mainplane now carrying two engines apiece - for a total of 4 x Rolls-Royce "Merlins" - with the project goal becoming a heavy bomber exhibiting a 55,500lb Maximum Take-Off Weight (MTOW) and capable of a warload of 8 x 1,000lb conventional drop bombs, a service ceiling nearing 43,000 feet and a maximum speed of 350 miles per hour.

    Two prototypes were covered by Specification B.5/41 and work on the airframes spanned into late-1942 by which point the original Wellington successor design was merged into the program under Specification B.3/42 and this commitment ultimately begat the "Windsor" (Type 447) high-altitude heavy bomber - the first-form of the aircraft recognized as "Windsor B.Mk I" before the end of 1943.

    For the high-altitude role, pressurization of the crew cabin spaces was a must. The aircraft would be of considerable size for the operating altitudes, range and bombload required. The mainplanes were shoulder-mounted along the fuselage sides, the fuselage given a deep profile with stepped cockpit. The tail unit incorporated a sole vertical fin with low-mounted horizontal planes and each wing mainplane managed a pair of Rolls-Royce engines for the power needed. The internal geodetic construction was also carried to the wings resulting in no spars being needed for supporting the wide-spanning structures - though the process was a complex one and required fine tuning (a special composite fabric also had to be designed to contend with the speeds at play). These structures also carried noticeable anhedral when the aircraft was at rest, flexing upwards when the bomber was in flight which further complicated the construction and skinning process of the aircraft). The undercarriage was unique in that each engine nacelle was given a wheeled main leg, the tail of the aircraft supported by a conventional tailwheel. This presented a pilot's challenge during ground-running on narrower runways.

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    Vickers Windsor Technical Specifications

    Service Year: 1943
    Type: Heavy Bomber Prototype
    National Origin: United Kingdom
    Manufacturer(s): Vickers-Armstrong Limited - United Kingdom
    Production Total: 3

    Structural (Crew Space, Dimensions and Weights)

    Operating Crew: 6
    Length: 76.87 feet (23.43 meters)
    Width: 117.16 feet (35.71 meters)
    Height: 22.97 feet (7.00 meters)

    Weight (Empty): 38,691 lb (17,550 kg)
    Weight (MTOW): 54,112 lb (24,545 kg)

    Installed Power and Standard Day Performance

    Engine(s): 4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 65 V12 liquid-cooled inline piston engines developing 1,635 horsepower.

    Maximum Speed: 317 mph (510 kph; 275 knots)
    Maximum Range: 2,892 miles (4,655 km)
    Service Ceiling: 27,231 feet (8,300 meters; 5.16 miles)
    Rate-of-Climb: 1,250 feet-per-minute (381 m/min)

    Armament / Mission Payload

    2 x 7.7mm machine guns in fixed, forward firing nose position.
    2 x 20mm cannons in aft turret emplacement.

    UPDATED (only fitted to third prototype):
    2 x 7.7mm machine guns in fixed, forward firing nose position.
    2 x 20mm remote-controlled cannons in portside outboard engine nacelle (aft-facing).
    2 x 20mm remote-controlled cannons in starboard side engine nacelle (aft-facing).

    Up to 8,000lb of internally-held conventional drop ordnance (later estimate increased to 12,000lb warload).

    Global Operators / Customers

    United Kingdom (cancelled)

    Model Variants (Including Prototypes)

    Windsor - Base Series Name; three prototypes completed.

    Type 447 - Original prototype; fitted with 4 x Rolls-Royce Merlin 65 engines of 1,315 horsepower each; article lost after crash landing.

    Type 457 - Modified prototype with Merlin 85 engines of 1,635 horsepower each; fuselage armoring; various changes implemented.

    Type 461 - Melin 85 engines; fitted with proposed armament suite.